[14], In March 2019, Kitaskino Nuwenëné Wildland Provincial Park was established on the borders of the Wood Buffalo National Park. Between 1951 and 1967, 4000 bison were killed and 2,000,000 pounds (910 t) of meat were sold from a special abattoir built at Hay Camp. It is located in northeastern Alberta and the southern Northwest Territories.Larger in area than Switzerland, it is the second-largest national park in the world. 1922 to protect the only remaining herd of wood bison. Following the Klondike Gold Rush of 1897, however, the Canadian government was keen to extinguish Aboriginal title to the land, so that any mineral wealth found in the future could be exploited despite any objections from First Nations. It’s the last remaining natural nesting area for the endangered whooping crane; It has unique salt plains created by an ancient seabed. As part of that decision the court recognized that there was an existing right under Treaty 8 to hunt, fish and trap for personal use within the park. It was named as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983 because of it's biological diversity of the Peace-Athabasca Delta, which is one of the world's largest freshwater deltas, as well as the population of wild bison. Wood Buffalo National Park Situated on the plains in the north-central region of Canada, the park (which covers 44,807 km2) is home to North America's largest population of wild bison. Shortly after this, Métis families were forcibly removed and excluded from activities in the Park. After park establishment traditional harvesting was considered a “privilege”, not an Aboriginal or Treaty Right, and permits were limited in number. The only places free of bison were along the coasts and deserts. [32] Winter access is also available using winter and ice roads from Fort McMurray through Fort Chipewyan. Research done in this area found that the local Indigenous Métis would likely have Powley-type hunting rights. Ranking as the world’s largest dark sky preserve, Wood Buffalo National Park is situated far north in Alberta, near the southern border of the Northwest Territories. [28][29], As above-mentioned, "wood bison" in the park are hybrid descendants between outnumbering, disease-infected plains bison translocated from Buffalo National Park into Wood Buffalo National Park in 1920s. 15BUR VI.31-34 - Wood Buffalo National Park (Canada) 1990 14COM IX - SOC: Wood Buffalo National Park (Canada) 1989 13COM VIII.16 - SOC: Wood Buffalo National Park (Canada) 1989 13BUR IVB.12 - State of conservation of other natural properties: 1985 09COM XIIIC - SOC: Wood Buffalo National Park (Canada) 1983 Report of the 7th Session of the Committee Over the years this “privilege” was passed down to the children of the original harvesters and a registry was established at the park to track hereditary eligibility, numbers of harvesters and number of permits issued. [18] The mean high in January is −21.7 °C (−7.1 °F) while the mean low is −31.8 °C (−25.2 °F). Everyone harvesting in the park at the time of expansion, both Indigenous and non-Indigenous, were eligible for a permit. Wood Buffalo National Park (established in 1922, 44 802 km2) was established to protect the last herd of wood bison. We visited Wood Buffalo National Park in mid-August. Buffalo National Park was created near the town of Wainwright in east central Alberta on June 5, 1909. [3] The park was established in 1922 to protect the world's largest herd of free roaming hybridized[4] wood bison, currently estimated at more than 5,000. 24, Alberta: The world's largest dark sky preserve is a Canadian park established to preserve the country's last wood … [15], In June 2019, UNESCO expressed concerns about managements of ecological health and indigenous usage especially water decline, and "warned" the park about potential delisting it from the World Heritage List. The park itself completely surrounds several Indian reserves such as Peace Point and ʔejëre K’elnı Kuę́ (also called Hay Camp). The park contains one of the world's largest fresh water deltas, the Peace-Athabasca Delta, formed by the Peace, Athabasca and Birch Rivers. Wood Buffalo National Park was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1983 because: It hosts one of the largest free-roaming and self-regulating bison herds in the world. Archeological evidence shows that Indigenous people have inhabited the region that is now Wood Buffalo National Park for more than 8000 years, long before fur traders arrived in the early 1700s. In both the original establishment and the expansion of the park the decisions to exclude certain Indigenous members of a community, for the reasons stated earlier, resulted in divisions between members where they did not exist before. Wood Buffalo National Park is the largest national park of Canada at 44,807 km2 (17,300 sq mi). Straddling the province of Alberta and the Northwest Territories, Canada’s largest park–five times the size of Yellowstone National Park–was established in 1922 to protect the free-roaming buffalo herds. It is located in northeastern Alberta and the southern Northwest Territories.Larger in area than Switzerland, it is the second-largest national park in the world. However, given the large area to be taken up as a National Park, eliminating all harvesting was not considered reasonable. The range is a complex of contiguous water bodies, primarily lakes and various wetlands, such as marshes and bogs, but also includes streams and ponds. History, politics, arts, science & more: the Canadian Encyclopedia is your reference on Canada. American white pelicans at Rapids of the Drowned (Slave River), Jack Van Camp, 1989, A Surviving Herd of Endangered Wood Bison at Hook Lake, N.W.T. Once you arrive, prepare to journey from running rapids to quiet pools while surrounded by massive bluffs as you cruise through the Ozark Mountains down to the White River. As you may have guessed from its name, the Park was created to protect dwindling wood bison herds. Wood Buffalo National Park, 17,577 sq mi (45,525 sq km), in NE Alta., Canada, extending into the Northwest Territories; est. Between 1925 and 1928, plains mostos were introduced in an effort to increase the number of animals in Wood Buffalo National Park. It was declared a World Heritage Site in 1983. In 1965, 23 of these bison were relocated to the south side of Elk Island National Park and 300 remain there today as the most genetically pure wood bison remaining. [18] Winters are cold with temperatures that can drop below −40 °C (−40.0 °F) in January and February, the coldest months. ?, Arctic, Vol. A more inclusive approach to harvesting was adopted. [17], In the park, summers are very short, but days are long. Again families with strong ties to the new park lands who were not actively harvesting in the park when the park expanded were not considered eligible. [18] Temperatures range between 10 to 30 °C (50.0 to 86.0 °F) during this season. Permits were however still based on being in the park at the time of expansion. When Wood Buffalo was created in 1922 (north of the Peace River) the land was considered to be ‘taken up’ and all Aboriginal rights were considered extinguished. A thorough understanding of traditional and scientific information is critical to protecting the ecological and cultural integrity of Wood Buffalo National Park. Covering more territory than Switzerland, it sprawls across northeastern Alberta and juts into the southern part of the Northwest Territories. The climate is very mixed and can go from -50 in the winter to +30 … In recorded times, the Dane-zaa (historically called the "Beaver tribe"), the Chipewyan people, the South Slavey (Dene Thaʼ), and Woods Cree people are known to have inhabited, and sometimes quarrelled over, the region. Wood Buffalo National Park Since 2003 local Indigenous Metis have exercised their Asserted Right to hunt in the park and have been involved in various park management objectives, including cooperative management. The designation helps preserve nighttime ecology for the park's large populations of bats, night hawks and owls, as well as providing opportunities for visitors to experience the northern lights.[10]. [18] On average, summers are characterized by warm and dry days although in some years, it can have cool and wet days. This short video showcases Canada's largest UNESCO world heritage site and national park as well as its oldest northern national park. Wood Buffalo National Park is the largest national park in Canada, established in 1922 to protect the world's largest herd of free roaming Wood Bison. National marine conservation areas system, Directory of federal heritage designations, http://www.pc.gc.ca/en/pn-np/nt/woodbuffalo/info/plan/plan1. It is also known for its karst sinkholes in the north-eastern section of the park. [12] Parks officials have since that time attempted to undo this damage with successive culls of diseased animals. As part of Canada's system of national parks and national historic sites, Wood Buffalo National Park of Canada is our country's largest national park and one of the largest in the world. The Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society filed a lawsuit against Parks Canada for violating the National Parks Act. This effectively struck down the privilege based system that had been in use since 1922. Fort Smith is the nearest town. Commercial flights are available to Fort Smith and Fort Chipewyan from Edmonton. Real change did not happen until two key Supreme Court of Canada cases were concluded: Subsistence hunting, fishing and trapping occurs today in Wood Buffalo National Park, as it has for centuries. It was identified through the International Biological Program. This region has been inhabited by human cultures since the end of the last ice age. Today bison are only wild in national parks, state parks, and reserves. Wood Buffalo National Park is a national park and the largest one in Canada.The park is located in northeastern Alberta and southern Northwest Territories.. Wood Buffalo National Park is the largest national park in Canada. The park was established in 1922 to protect the world's largest herd of free roaming hybridized wood bison, currently estimated … Cultural History Archeological evidence shows that Indigenous people have inhabited the region that is now Wood Buffalo National Park for more than 8000 years, long before fur traders arrived in the early 1700s. Understand [] History [] Landscape [] Climate []. Métis members who had been harvesting on lands that became the new park were not permitted to continue to harvest in the park. The park was created after three oil companies – Teck Resources, Cenovus Energy, and Imperial Oil – voluntarily gave up certain oilsands and mining leases in the area, following negotiations with the Alberta government and indigenous groups. [citation needed]. This provincial park will be closed to forestry and new energy projects, but existing wells in the area can keep producing and traditional indigenous land uses are allowed. The 44,000-square-kilometre park is Canada’s largest national park and home to one of the largest free-roaming wood bison herds in the world. And the Peace River, which had long been used by the First Nations as a trade route, also now also added to the growing network of canoe routes used in the North American fur trade. Before the trial commenced in 1992, Parks Canada acquiesced and recognized that the lease was invalid and unauthorized by the provisions of the act. It has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site due to its large population of bison (largest in North America) and the largest inland delta.. Cougars, feral horses, and muskoxes have been recorded within and vicinity of the park.[19][20][21][22][23]. Outside the park boundary though, anyone who wanted to shoot ejëre east of Highway 35 in Alberta, could. This history is reviewed in the first half of the paper, to demonstrate how … The park has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site due to its bison population (the largest in North America) and the largest inland delta. It has an area of 17,300 sq mi (44,807 sq km) and was established in 1922 as a refuge to protect the few remaining bison herds in northern Canada. WBNP was established in 1922 and was placed on the World It was established in 1922 to protect the last remaining herds of bison in northern Canada. 314-322, C. G Van Zyll de Jong , 1986, A systematic study of recent bison, with particular consideration of the wood bison (Bison bison athabascae Rhoads 1898), National Museum of Natural Sciences, "Protected Planet | Wood Buffalo National Park Of Canada", "Heaven Below Me – Exploring Wood Buffalo National Park from the Air", https://www.thechronicleherald.ca/news/canada/more-staff-artificial-flooding-among-plans-to-save-wood-buffalo-national-park-280877/, "Ottawa produces action plan for Wood Buffalo National Park", https://cklbradio.com/feds-have-new-plan-to-preserve-wood-buffalo-national-park/, "Wood Buffalo National Park: Statement of Significance", "RASC Designates Wood Buffalo National Park as a New Dark Sky Preserve", "Northern bison sanctuary or big ranch? It is also the most ecologically complete and largest example of the Great Plains-Boreal grassland ecosystem of North America. Larger in area than Switzerland,[2] it is the second-largest national park in the world. Explorer Peter Pond is believed to have passed through the region in 1785, likely the first European to do so, followed by Alexander Mackenzie three years later. Sometime after 1781 when a smallpox epidemic decimated the region, the two groups made a peace treaty at Peace Point through a ceremonial pipe ceremony. It is huge with only one road in order to conserve wildlife and environment. This complicated history has been a negative one for all involved but was especially unfair to Indigenous people. From the fur trade, the Métis people emerged as another major group in the region. The history of the establishment and operation of the park has been negative for the Indigenous communities and confusion remains regarding Harvesting Rights. As a result, Wood Buffalo National Park became the first national park in Canada to allow Indigenous traditional harvesting. This is captured and supported in the 2010 Wood Buffalo National Park Management Plan under Key Strategy 1, Towards a Shared Vision which is located at: http://www.pc.gc.ca/en/pn-np/nt/woodbuffalo/info/plan/plan1. Your best chance of seeing wild bison are to visit Yellowstone National Park or Wood Buffalo National Park of Canada. However, while innovative at the time, this approach was not implemented in a way that treated harvesting by all Indigenous people in a fair fashion. Elias / Glacier Bay / Tatshenshini-Alsek, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wood_Buffalo_National_Park&oldid=998364612, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2014, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 01:38. The park ranges in elevation from 183 m (600 ft) at the Little Buffalo River to 945 m (3,100 ft) in the Caribou Mountains. This region has been inhabited by human cultures since the end of the last ice age. Wood Buffalo National Park is Canada’s largest national park. Wood Buffalo is Canada’s largest national park. This led to the signing of Treaty 8 on 21 June 1899. Canada purchased the Hudson's Bay Company's claim to the region in 1870. Wood Buffalo National Park, park in northern Alberta and southern Northwest Territories, Canada, between Athabasca and Great Slave lakes. It is also the natural nesting place of the whooping crane. The park headquarters is located in Fort Smith, with a smaller satellite office in Fort Chipewyan, Alberta. 4 (Dec., 1989), pp. It protects the largest intact boreal forest on earth, contains the largest freshwater inland delta on earth, and is home to a herd of rare wood bison (or "wood buffalo"). This area was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983 for the biological diversity of the Peace-Athabasca Delta, one of the world's largest freshwater deltas, as well as the population of wild bison. The land then passed into the hand of the federal government as Crown land. 1) In 2003 the R. v. Powley decision recognized the Métis right to hunt in the Sault Ste Marie area. Bison hunting was prohibited, and Wood Buffalo Park was established, now Wood Buffalo National Park (WBNP). Wood Buffalo National Park – a UNESCO World Heritage Site – is to receive nearly $60-million over the next three years to deal with threats from hydro and oil sands development and climate change. Alberta's largest springs (by volume, with an estimated discharge rate of eight cubic meters per second), Neon Lake Springs, are located in the Jackfish River drainage. It was established in 1922 to protect the world's largest herd of free-roaming wood bison, currently estimated at more than 5,000. Canada's largest national park straddles the Alberta/NWT border. Wood Buffalo National Park is a vast, protected wilderness in northeastern Alberta and the southern Northwest Territories. In 1926 the park was expanded south of the Peace River into the Peace Athabasca Delta to protect the bison transported from the south, which had migrated across the Peace River. [18] In spring, temperatures gradually warm up as the days become longer. regime. Situated at the junction of three major rivers used as canoe routes for trade — the Athabasca, Peace and the Slave Rivers — the region that later became the national park was well travelled for millennia. Wood Buffalo National Park is at risk of losing its UNESCO Heritage Status. [13] This plan was abandoned due to a negative public reaction to the announcement. At 44,802 sq.km., this is the largest NP in North America and bigger than Switzerland. An at-risk national park: Wood Buffalo National Park was designated a World Heritage Site in 1983. It is the only known nesting site of the endangered whooping cranes. Over 200 years ago, Peter Pond and the Voyagers of the Northwest Trading Company traveled through this area in search of furs and discovered land of wild water, lush forests and abundant wildlife. [18], Wood Buffalo National Park contains a large variety of wildlife species, such as red fox, bison, moose, great grey owls, black bears, hawks, timber wolves, lynxes, beavers, snowy owls, marmots, bald eagles, martens, wolverines, peregrine falcons, whooping cranes, snowshoe hares, sandhill cranes, ruffed grouses, and the world's northernmost population of red-sided garter snakes, which form communal dens within the park. Wood Buffalo Park contains the only natural nesting habitat for the endangered whooping crane. [5][6][7] It is one of two known nesting sites of whooping cranes. It was closed in 1940 and delisted in 1947 when the land was transferred to the Department of National Defence. The protection of this park was first proposed by the Mikisew Cree First Nation, and it will protect the natural ecosystems from the expanding industrial areas north of Fort McMurray. Only First Nation members who were harvesting on the lands established as a park were allowed to continue harvesting. 2) In 2005 the Mikisew Cree First Nation v. Canada decision was released. The Dane-zaa, Chipewyan, and South Slavey speak (or spoke) languages from the Northern Athabaskan family, which is also common in the regions to the north and west of the park, and call themselves the "Dene" collectively. American bison like open plains, savannas, and grasslands. [30] However, a study in 1995 detected that there have been notable differences in morphology among each herds within the park, showing different degrees of hybridization. Aboriginal peoples in this region have followed variations on the subarctic lifeway, based around hunting, fishing, and gathering. They were drawn by the fur trade, not realizing the future that lay within the sticky black sand and pools of bitumen documented in Pond’s Journals. Articles, timelines & resources for teachers, students & public. The Cree, by contrast, are an Algonquian people and are thought to have migrated here from the east within the timeframe of recorded history. Over the years the privileged based system continued to be an issue of concern for local Indigenous people. Gros Beak Lake (Wood Buffalo National Park) 1 Wood Buffalo National Park – This massive park is a UNESCO world heritage site that extends into the Northwest Territories. Aboriginal peoples in this region have followed variations on the subarctic lifeway, based around hunting, fishing, and gathering. Wood Buffalo National Park Experience the wonders of a UNESCO World Heritage Site and Canada’s largest national park and now the World's Largest Dark Sky Preserve. 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