Synonymous phrasing includes "composed of", "consists of" and "comprises". When you use “comprise,” you’re talking about all the parts that make up something. Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if possible). "Comprised of", with what is by far its most common meaning today, has occurred since the early 18th century. Instead, it is only possible for the pair %"The committee is comprised of three judges", and %"Three judges comprise the committee", both disputed. Grammatically, this is patterned on the conversion of verb compose to adjective composed (although semantically, matters are more complex). [19], It has been used in several newspapers, including The Washington Post, The New Yorker, The Atlantic and The New York Times. The book is composed of 12 chapters. 'All Intensive Purposes' or 'All Intents and Purposes'? "[24] (American linguist Mark Liberman points out that the U.S. Code "apparently includes some 1,880 instances of 'comprised of', and changing them will require many acts of Congress…"[25]). Synonyms for comprised of include included, incorporated, encompassed, covered, embraced, involved, constituted, contained, consisted of and carried. By linguistics convention, a superscripted percentage mark in front of a putative sentence or phrase denotes its grammaticality to some but not all native speakers of the language. comprised of May 31, 2016 yanira.vargas. Another correct way to make the point would be to say that the book 'was constituted of fifteen chapters' or that 'the fifteen chapters constituted the book'. Lets take a closer look at the definitions to put this in context: comprise is a verb that means to include or contain or to consist of as in The pie comprises 8 slices. It’s easier than you’d think for unclarity to arise about whether an author is saying some abstract X makes up Y or that it consists of Y. The OED presents "Of things material: To contain, as parts making up the whole, to consist of (the parts specified)" as the fourth sense, first encountered in 1481. [25][48] Geoffrey Pullum expressed approval of the principle mingled with doubt about its practicality, saying he would be happy for the editor's "clarifying mission to succeed. Another word for be composed of. Even though many writers maintain this distinction, comprise is often used in place of compose, especially in the passive: The Union is comprised of 50 states. It is comprised of police and other law enforcement agencies on both sides of the border. The authors of The Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation state that "comprised of" is never correct because the word comprise by itself already means "composed of". Antonyms for comprised. [1] Posner-Klein is comprised of our former colleagues. If you like the look and sound of comprise, you can still use it correctly. The phrase "comprised of" is never correct to usage purists despite its regular appearance in writing. The active version of the disputed usage is older still. The verb comprise does not license a preposition phrase headed by of: its meaning aside, *"The book comprises of a hundred pages" is ungrammatical. The key rule to remem… [n 1] Here are some examples (with emphasis added): The works of major novelists, intellectuals and essayists have included "comprised of": Among more recent examples, the Merriam Webster Dictionary attributes "about 8 percent of our military forces are comprised of women" to former US President Jimmy Carter. The similar-sounding word compose means "make up" as in Many ethnic groups compose our nation. Moderna Covid-19 Vaccine, Coronavirus Vaccine Latest Update Today: Phase 1 trial results of the vaccine, mRNA-1273, have been found promising. Malapropism or no, it is now well established. Fifty states compose (or make up) the Union. "Comprise" means "contains, is made up of, embraces": the whole comprises the parts, the parts compose the whole. ", "comprise, consist, compose or constitute? However, with the meaning of comprise that is the commonest (and is not disputed), the parallel pair is not possible for comprise(d). Comprise means "contain", as in The hotel comprises 150 rooms. (However, it notes that "Many of the early passages in which this word occurs are so vague that it is difficult to gather the exact sense.") Although the former is not a passive clause (as explained in "Syntax", above), it behaves like one semantically. [26][27] The distinction between the verb comprise (of course including preterite and past participle "comprised") and adjective comprised is perhaps most easily understood via compose(d): Treatments of this topic nearly always mistakenly speak of is composed of and is comprised of as passives. [43] Other usage compendia have no comment on either "comprised of" or comprise. It seems simple enough: “to comprise” means “to contain” (1), as in “The house comprises seven rooms.” In other words, this house has or contains seven rooms. The Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine is the first COVID-19 vaccine approved by health agencies in the U.K. and the U.S. While its use is common in writing and speech, it has been regarded by some language professionals as incorrect, stemming from the fact that comprise on its own already means "composed of". [22][23], In the context of legal usage, American lexicographer Bryan A. Garner writes that "The phrase is comprised of is always wrong and should be replaced by either is composed of or comprises. In the process of conversion from verb to adjective, complementation may change. Comprise is often misused for compose. Our surveys show that opposition to this usage has abated but has not disappeared. Although comprise is a verb, comprised is an adjective if it takes as its complement a preposition phrase headed by of. "[45] Conversely, Edinburgh University linguistics professor Geoffrey Pullum writes "I’d happily comply with an edict limiting comprise to its original sense … I see no reason to favor the inverted sense. What made you want to look up comprised of? Find more ways to say be composed of, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at, the world's most trusted free thesaurus. be comprised of meaning: consist of, be made up of. [n 8] Although the Oxford English Dictionary notes that certain usages of other words are disparaged,[n 9] it does not comment on the acceptability of "comprised of" (which it glosses as "To be composed of, to consist of"). (CORRECT) The Chicago Manual of Style, while recognizing its increasing popularity, states that the phrase “is comprised of” is poor usage and should be avoided. Like, "this drink is composed of sugar, water, and blue food coloring." [37][38][39]), Despite these deprecations, in a 2011 survey, only 32 percent of the writers and editors on the Usage Panel of the American Heritage Dictionary found "comprised of" unacceptable.[40]. [20][21], "Comprised of" is used in U.S. patents as a transition phrase that means "consisting at least of". Forums pour discuter de comprised, voir ses formes composées, des exemples et poser vos questions. I’ll call this the inverted sense. [30][n 7], As one of "7 grammar rules you really should pay attention to", University of Delaware journalism and English professor Ben Yagoda says "Don't use comprised of. 'Nip it in the butt' or 'Nip it in the bud'? The lower level comprises three double-size bedrooms, a bathroom, and laundry. To be composed of or contain: The staff comprises eight physicians, two dozen nurses, and various administrative people. Comprise means “to include” or “to be composed of.” A basketball team comprises five players. See for example, "Unfortunately, for centuries the verb comprise has also been used to mean compose. This form, be comprised of, has the same meaning as comprise. In its earliest known uses (from 1423), it seems to mean "To lay hold on, take, catch, seize", a sense now obsolete. "[31], The style guide for the British newspapers The Guardian and The Observer says that "The one thing [about comprise, consist, compose or constitute] to avoid, unless you want people who care about such things to give you a look composed of, consisting of and comprising mingled pity and contempt, is 'comprised of' ". For the distinction between participial adjectives (e.g. If you say that something comprises or is comprised of a number of things or people, you mean it has them as its parts or members. [34], Simon Heffer elaborated on a short warning in his book Strictly English[35] with a longer one in his Simply English: "A book may comprise fifteen chapters, but it is not comprised of them. composed of/constituted by/made up by/comprised of/formed by (formality order?) As of 2007[update], 134,000 U.S. patents included "comprised of" language. Synonyms for comprised in Free Thesaurus. Usage Problem To compose; make up; constitute: the countries and territories that comprised the British Empire. Yes, "composed of" is the correct form. Find … comprised - traduction anglais-français. Common examples include afraid ("He's afraid of spiders"), aware ("They were aware of the dangers"), and convinced ("They became convinced of their strength"). The Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, Collins English Dictionary and the Oxford Dictionariesregard the form "comprised of" as standard English usage, but according to Oxford the construction "x comprises of y and z" is considered … Although “comprise” is used primarily to mean “to include,” it is also often stretched to mean “is made up of”—a meaning that some critics object to. Learn more. Your grade is composed of several factors, such as homework, projects, and test scores. However, the passive voice of comprise must be employed carefully to make sense. Nobody says *Brass is composed by copper and zinc. Learn a new word every day. The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) shows that the verb comprise has been used with a range of meanings. Synonyms for composed of include comprising, consisting of, encompassing, made from, of, built from, assembled from, composed from, constructed from and crafted from. 6 of Huddleston and Pullum. Il Posner-Klein è costituito da nostri ex colleghi. It’s common for speakers to say that a basketball team “is comprised of five players” instead of “is composed of five players.” Which of the following refers to thin, bending ice, or to the act of running over such ice. This has not led to the removal of "comprised of" by CliffsNotes' own copyeditors. Definition of comprised of : made up of The play is comprised of three acts. I l est co mposé d 'org an ismes policiers et autres for ce … 2. [from earlier 15thc.] Steelers Week 17 inactive list is comprised of players who were left in Pittsburgh There were 6 players who didn’t make the trip to Cleveland and they make up the entire inactive list In Malaysian English, not only the adjective comprised but also the verb comprise can take a preposition phrase headed by of, as in: "According to our analysis, the voters comprise of 297 Malays, 469 Chinese, 39 Indians and four from other races".[28]. These include Gowers and Fraser's The Complete Plain Words[41] and the style guides of The Economist[42] and The Times. The opening paragraph is comprised of three sentences. “Comprised of.” Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, Summary - English Grammar Today - a reference to written and spoken English grammar and usage - Cambridge Dictionary The Management Board's remuneration structure orients itself towards the group's economic and financial situation and is comprised of a fixed monthly salary, variable remuneration in the shape of a performance bonus (linked to the earnings before income taxes), payment in kind (company cars, etc. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! However, I wouldn't bet a dime on his success. See David Russinoff, Mark Liberman, and commenters, ". [26][27] However, the sentence "the book comprises a hundred pages" is neither ungrammatical nor tautological. Instead use composed of/made up of. People use 'composed of' to define what a substance is made out of. So we can take the above example sentences and reword them thus: His country is comprised of fifty states and one district. Comprised of is an expression in English that means "to compose or constitute". So, maybe. The construction "is comprised of" (it correctly includes the word "of") is considered by many to be non-standard English. Compose means to be or constitute a part of element of or to make up or form the basis of, as in Eight slices compose the pie. The whole comprises the parts. [44] Oliver Kamm defends it, together with the verb comprise used in the active voice:[n 10] "Merriam-Webster observes that this disputed usage has been in existence for more than a century. [n 5] However, the adjective comprised requires it: both *"The book is comprised a hundred pages" and *"The book is comprised" are ungrammatical. composed of (something) Made up of (something); consisting of (something). [n 11] There’s nothing virtuous about the ambiguity and auto-antonymy it promotes. The parts are comprised by the whole. Gratuit. Only 1.2% of the country is comprised of arable land. The Meaning of 'Comprise' It seems simple enough: “to comprise” means “to contain” (1), as in “The house comprises seven rooms.” In other words, this house has or contains seven rooms. Neither is unclear in the context; both are legitimate. CliffsNotes says "don't use the phrase 'is comprised of'", but does not explain why. [27] The OED gives use 8.b of comprise as "To constitute, make up, compose", and dates this back to 1794; and it has been used by respected writers (for example, Charles Dickens[29]). It's been in use for centuries. "Is comprised of" should properly be rephrased as either "comprises" or "is composed of" ("the galaxy comprises many stars" or "the galaxy is composed of many stars"). [1] The Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, Collins English Dictionary and the Oxford Dictionaries regard the form "comprised of" as standard English usage,[2][3][4] but according to Oxford the construction "x comprises of y and z" is considered incorrect. This book is comprised of 250 pages. When you use "comprise", you’re talking about all the parts that make up something whole. A non-exhaustive list of fifty or so such adjectives appears in Pullum and Huddleston, "Adjectives and adverbs", chap. Qatar is comprised of mostly flat and barren dessert covered in loose sand and gravel. The correct version put forward by grammar guides is to used "composed of" or "comprises" such as "the cake is composed of flour and … (Very few native speakers of Standard English would accept *"Three judges are comprised of the committee". When you use “comprise,” you’re talking about all the parts that make up something. I am almost positive, however, that 'composed by' is used exclusively with music, since the act of "composing" something is always centered around music. [n 3], English has a number of adjectives that take as their complements preposition phrases headed by of. [46] Some coverage praised the work as a uniquely focused effort for correctness,[47] but others criticized it as grammatically misguided. "[27] Linguist Geoff Nunberg described the editor's ongoing "jihad" against the use of the phrase an "example of the pedant's veto" and that the community was "resigned to letting him have his way" despite its being illogical. Overt defenses of "comprised of" are uncommon, but Harvard University psychology professor Steven Pinker considers its deprecation to be one of "a few fuss-budget decrees you can safely ignore". They aren't. In other words, the hotel has or contains 150 rooms for guests. The fundamental difference between comprise and compose has to do with the whole versus the parts of any object or concept. Although comprised of is an established standard for "being composed or constituted of," it is often liable to criticism and scrutiny. Two are exemplified in: The former is not disputed. In the English of the 20th and 21st centuries, the part/whole meanings have been overwhelmingly important. The word comes from French comprendre (which itself comes from Latin), but while the OED does not call obsolete every comprehension-related sense of comprise, its newest examples are from the 1850s. "[27], In 2015, many media outlets, starting with Backchannel, reported that Wikipedia editor Bryan "Giraffedata" Henderson had manually removed many instances of "comprised of" from the online encyclopedia. [49], With what is likely to have been a different meaning, it goes back to 1661 if not earlier. Post the Definition of comprised of to Facebook, Share the Definition of comprised of on Twitter. You cannot compose a book, or a play, or a movie, or a game of tennis, you can only compose music, … It may be the result of a centuries-old malapropism for compose, a malapropism that caught on. Qatar è composta da dessert prevalentemente pianeggiante e arido coperto di sabbia sciolta e ghiaia. A look at what the vaccine is composed of and how it works, what the trials showed, and what are the many stages that remain. The clinical trials proved that the vaccine is safe and efficient at preventing COVID-19 infection. See Synonyms at include. To avert criticism, reword your sentence to avoid this construction. ", within ", The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language, The Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts Sciences, Literature and General Information, "This city proves how feasible a zero-landfill model is", Crouch, Dennis, “'Comprised of' is an open-ended transition”, [[Patently-O, Cias, Inc. v. Alliance Gaming Corp., 504 F. 3d 1356 – Court of Appeals, Federal Circuit 2007, "Structural nativisation in Malaysian English: Prepositional verb idiosyncrasies", 7 grammar rules you really should pay attention to, With MPs like these, porn films should be the least of our worries, "One man's quest to rid Wikipedia of exactly one grammatical mistake", "He might be a pedantic oddity, but Wikipedia's grammar crusader is my modern-day hero", "Man's Wikipedia edits mostly consist of deleting 'comprised of, "Wikipedia editor has made 47,000 edits manually to correct one simple mistake", "Why Wikipedia's grammar vigilante is wrong", "This guy edited 50,000 Wikipedia articles to fix a grammar error that's not even an error", "Don't You Dare Use 'Comprised Of' On Wikipedia: One Editor Will Take It Out",, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2007, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "For so tho' a Triangle in the most simple and precise Conception of it be only a Figure, "Not Punch, nor salmagundi, nor any other Drink or Meat, of more repugnant Compounds, can be, "The supper having been removed, and nothing but the dessert, which is, "I started another sketch on the strength of this statement, but feeling a bit dubious over his assertion that the one tree was. Compose in its musical/literary sense does have a passive (The Moonlight Sonata was composed by Beethoven), but the part/whole sense doesn't. By linguistics convention, an asterisk in front of a putative sentence or phrase denotes its ungrammaticality to native speakers of the language. If you want to be correct in the eyes of discriminating readers, use "composed of." (transitive) To be made up of; to consist of (especially a comprehensive list of parts). [32] Reuters' style guide also advises against using the phrase,[33] as does the IBM style guide. The main ingredient is a messenger RNA that encodes the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, which is used to trigger an immune response. This paint is actually composed of several natural ingredients. It is a less common form of "comprises". The latter is less common, and is disputed. [27], Specifically, comprised within "comprised of" is a participial adjective. )[27], "Comprised of" is often deprecated. It comprised the following items: the formation of a constitution which would strengthen the monarchy by calling to it the support of the whole nation, the drafting of a scheme of local self-government on democratic lines, the reform of the administration of justice and of the criminal law, and the abolition of the most burdensome of feudal and class privileges. comprise meaning: 1. to have things or people as parts or members; to consist of: 2. to be the parts or members of…. [n 4]. Comprised of is an expression in English that means "composed of" or "constituted by". The lower level comprises three double-size bedrooms, a bathroom, and laundry. Those who say or write such a thing are confusing it with composed of. "The body-covering of birds is, without exception, "The mining towns are comprised of the sudden erections which sprung from the finding of gold in the neighbourhood, and are generally surrounded by thick forest.”, “One element of the immediate feelings of the concrescent subject is comprised of the anticipatory feelings of the transcendent future in its relation to the immediate fact.”, “There is a dead nerveless area on the Left, comprised of the old sense of paralysis before the horror of the gas chamber.”, ”The dualism to which Sartre refers is that of the unconscious id, which is wholly comprised of the instinctual drives, and the conscious ego.”, ”The book is comprised of a few of the innumerable letters, statements, speeches and articles delivered by me since 1963.”, ”’The Auroras of Autumn’ is comprised of ten sections, each of unrhymed tercets.”, "I never set out to 'write' a memoir — the book called 'A Widow’s Story' is comprised of journal entries from Feb. 11, 2008, through Aug. 29, 2008. Consist, comprise or compose ? On the other hand, “is composed of” is perfectly acceptable. Instead we get Brass is composed of copper and zinc – and there is no understood by-phrase. If you say that something comprises or is comprised of a number of things or people, you mean it has them as its parts or members. Delivered to your inbox! While its use is common in writing and speech, it has been regarded by some language professionals as incorrect, stemming from the fact that comprise on its own already means "composed of". Accessed 17 Jan. 2021. One may say "The committee is composed of three judges", and also "Three judges compose the committee". "[36] (Yet Heffer himself is one of those who writes this. Test your knowledge - and maybe learn something along the way. ", ”The House of the Spirits is, or rather retrospectively it became, the last of a trilogy that is comprised of itself, preceded by Daughter of Fortune and Portrait in Sepia.”, This page was last edited on 15 January 2021, at 23:48. Certain usage guides warn their readers about the meaning of comprise – despite the appearance within respected dictionaries of the use they deprecate (see "Semantics") – but do not mention "comprised of".