5. According to Kohlberg’s theory of gender-role development. Emily's parents want to protect her from early participation in sexual activity and should actively support which of the following? Proponents of the social-roles hypothesis criticize modern evolutionary theorists for ignoring _____ in their theory of gender-typing. 95. Critics of social cognitive theory argue that it pays too little attention to the roles of the child's own mind and understanding. Sexual harassment includes which of the following? gender differences vary from culture to culture depending on the roles men and women hold in each society. Emphasizes the dominant/submissive nature of the male/female relationship and perpetuates gender inequality. Selected Answer: moral responsibilities that exist within relationships. 51. a flawed experiment. 91. 36. What advice about bicultural identity would psychologist Laura Brown give to a gay or lesbian couple? Paulo unconsciously knows what it means to be a boy. Which of the following is positively correlated with increased sexual behavior in adolescents? Sex education programs that emphasize contraceptive knowledge result in which of the following? 64. What percentage of female rape victims suffer some form of sexual dysfunction? It also dictat… 76. Children as young as 9 months-old prefer to play with toys specific to their own gender, according to a new study. Psychoanalytical theories- ... according to the gender-intensification hypothesis, what is a likely result of adolescent boys attempting to be more masculine. 61. The primary factor that determines whether a woman will have an active sex life during middle age is: 105. I just gave you my work schedule and evening plans for the week." 102. 2. The topic of gender and leadership deserves serious and thoughtful consideration and discussion because of professional, political, cultural, and personal realities of the twenty‐first century. Comparing the math abilities of males and females shows that: 34. Men are likely to engage in helping behavior when: 40. Unwittingly, the students align traditionally male jobs with pictures of men and traditionally female jobs with pictures of women. These pressures are thought to come from a variety of sources and are intended to prepare adolescents for their adult roles as women and men. Charlie engages in __________, whereas Helen desires __________. Chad is upset, but actively refuses to show his emotion. Third, age‐related declines in gender stereotypes … Which of the following accurately describes the sexual activity of most individuals during emerging adulthood? Gender intensification: Term. Sandra wants to reduce her teenage daughter's risk of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection. -adolescent girls are taught household duties, -expected to provide, protect, and procreate, -"communal manhood": adolescent boys preparing to assume adult male role responsibilities in work and marriage; "communal" because community and family was more important than indiv achievement (18th/19th centr), --psychological and behavioral differences in males and females become heightened in childhood to adolescence because of the intensified pressures to conform to culturally "required" gender roles, Gender Socialization: Family, Peers, and School, -"differential gender socialization": a term used for socializing females and males; what different expectations on attitudes and behavior are appropriate to each gender. Observation, imitation, and rewards and punishment are facets of which gender theory? 2. Relations between the United States and the Soviet Union—erstwhile allies—soured soon after World War II. Research indicates that stereotyped gender roles are more psychologically constrictive for: 27. These critics support a(n) __________ approach to gender theory. 92. Which of the following is a finding of Robert Michael's extensive interview study regarding Americans' sex lives? 100. __________ are sex hormones produced both by the testes and adrenal glands. 7. 9. d. Which of the following factors is the MOST common negative result of being an unmarried adolescent mother? 21. 73. The gender similarities hypothesis holds that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables. This is: 45. His wife, however, complains that he is not sensitive enough. 77. What percentage of college men admit to forcing a woman into a sexual act? According to the text, no one has ever seen evolution. Mr. and Mrs. McDermott’s three children all have low self-esteem, struggle with depression, and exhibit antisocial behavior. Studies following XY children with pelvic field defects indicate that: 13. According to meta-analyses, however, among both children and adults, females perform equally to males on mathematics assessments. Ans: C. Learning Objective: 3-3: Analyze the biological and sociocultural factors that shape sex assignment and gender identity. Gender intensification appears to be driven by. Emotional Autonomy: Definition. ... according to psychoanalytic theory gender role development occurs primarily as a result of. Arial is fifteen years old and pregnant. Compared with the male brain, which of the following is characteristic of a female brain? A)the gender composition of a job B)interruptions to women's employment over the course of their working life C)discrimination in the workplace D)benevolent and hostile sexism How many college freshman women report having been date raped or having experienced an attempted date rape at least once? Which of the following countries has the highest rate of teen pregnancy? "What do you mean? 19. Pablo is experiencing: 50. As men grow older, there is a continuing trend that older men __________. Which of the following describes congenital adrenal hyperplasia? Tammy is a fifth grade student who frequently spreads rumors about her least favorite classmates. This is an example of: 29. c. They take body bulking steroidal supplements. Although pregnancy rates in the United States remain high, they fell to a record low in 2004. Which of the following is NOT an alternative to HRT? 62. “World communism is like a malignant parasite which feeds only on diseased tissue,” he wrote, and “the steady advance of uneasy Russian nati… C) gender-role transcendence. Correct Answer: moral responsibilities that exist within relationships. Which developmental approach argues that different environmental pressures in primeval times forced the separation of gender roles? 42. Ester Boserup (18 May 1910 – 24 September 1999) was a Danish economist.She studied economic and agricultural development, worked at the United Nations as well as other international organizations, and wrote seminal books on agrarian change and the role of women in development.. Boserup is known for her theory of agricultural Whereas male traits are generally instrumental, female traits are: 30. On February 22, 1946, less than a year after the end of the war, the chargé d’affaires of the U.S. embassy in Moscow, George Kennan sent a famously lengthy telegram—literally referred to as the Long Telegram—to the State Department denouncing the Soviet Union. According to Erikson, the major personality achievement during adolescence is: Definition. A recent large-scale study of American women found that most postmenopausal women reported: 99. Tony has been diagnosed with erectile dysfunction. 85. 56. Gina loves to play rugby, and Josh is enrolled in ballet lessons. Reasons for the decline include which of the following? Gender Intensification. What is the hormonal change that is associated with males in middle adulthood? 82. Report talk involves sharing information, while rapport talk involves: 49. 29/10/2015 4 Effects 1. 90. Which theory of gender emphasizes the role of peers in gender typing? Through adolescence, the time in gendered social contexts generally showed to be associated with the development of more gender stereotyped qualities. They obsess about academic achievement and reward. 24. Marc's doctor informs him that he has an incurable sexually transmitted disease. Condoms are least effective against the spread of: 67. Which of the following pairs is correct? 46. -these gender differences increases differences between males and females in adolescence. Which of the following statements regarding current-day knowledge about sexual orientation is correct? Middle-aged, Paul and Abby do not have sex as often as they did when they were younger. b. a. The Gender Intensification Hypothesis. Pat's 23rd pair of chromosomes is XY. --psychological and behavioral differences in males and females become heightened in childhood to adolescence because of the intensified pressures to conform to culturally "required" gender roles. This is MOST likely because they: 104. Joe has contracted a virus that is destroying his body's immune system. Although adolescent contraceptive use is increasing, the United States continues to have one of the highest __________ rates in the industrialized world. One of the best predictors of getting an STI is: 69. According to Miller, much of female development includes: 47. Impossible standards leads to low self-esteem and high dissatisfaction.3. Gender differences can vary substantially in magnitude at … Which of the following STIs is caused by bacteria rather than a virus? The gender intensification hypothesis states that girls and boys experience increased pressure to conform to culturally sanctioned gender roles during adolescence (Hill and Lynch 1983 ). They engage in risk-taking and rebellious behavior. Gender schemas have an impact not only on how people process information but on the attitudesand beliefs that direct "gender-appropriate" behavior. Which of the following statements regarding male and female adolescent sexual behavior is accurate? This behavior is an example of: 38. Previous research clarifies the role of peer influence as central to adolescent risk-taking. The gender difference in 3D mental rotation shows a moderate advantage for males. Fifty-year-old Denise complains of nausea and fatigue, and her doctor notes a sharp decrease in estrogen levels. Which disease does Marc have? Charlie disputes Helen's complaint that they never talk. Aaron just turned 13 and has decided he needs to be more "manly" so he starts picking fights with other boys and engaging is risky behaviors,things he never did when he was younger.His behavior can best be explained by: A) the gender intensification hypothesis. Gender is one such variable that must be examined with regard to optimizing leadership effectiveness. According to research conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics,_____ is the single largest contributor to the gender wage gap. According to the gender-intensification hypothesis, what is a likely result of adolescent boys attempting to be viewed as more masculine? Which of the following will be most effective? 50. the development of gender stereotypes. When reviewing factors related to school achievement, such as class participation, attention, and academic success: 35. Hormones are chemical substances secreted by glands throughout the body and carried in the bloodstream. 87. Which of the following STIs is caused by a virus rather than bacteria? 79. 88. The gender intensification hypothesis suggests that girls and boys experience increased pressure to conform to culturally sanctioned gender roles during adolescence (Hill and Lynch 1983). 78. According to Bem's _____ our culture polarizes males and females by forcing them to obey mutually exclusive gender roles Gender-schema theory In 2008 of the 900 juveniles arrested for mmurder only __________ were female 15. Gender intensification occurs during _____ and is thought to most clearly reflect _____ . In terms of effect sizes, the gender similarities hypothesis states that most psychological gender differences are in the close-to- Pablo feels pressure to be a strong, independent provider. ‐Gender-intensification hypothesis Gender Stereotypes in Adolescence •In early adolescence, gender stereotyping might increase again •By late adolescence, gender attitudes become more flexible Gender Roles in Adulthood •Gender roles change during the adult years ‐Parental imperative: •Mothers and fathers adopt different gender roles so A person's sexual orientation MOST likely is determined by a combination of: Gender Intensification Hypothesis: Definition. Psychological and behavioral differences tend to increase during adolescence because of increased social pressures to conform to traditional gender roles. 53. The notion that very old adults have no sex life is. 57 A person's sexual orientation MOST likely is determined by a combination of: 59. Women's, Gender & Sexuality Studies arrow_forward; Instructors ... the logic of hypothesis testing. 72. theory. a proven hypothesis becomes a . 33. With regard to gender stereotyping, recent research shows that parents: 22. Through these observations, children form schema related to what men and women can and cannot do. 83. 60. That is, men and women, as well as boys and girls, are more alike than they are different. hypothesis. 8. His doctor is likely to treat him with: 103. However, in contrast to the gender intensification hypothesis, these qualities and interests declined or increased for both boys and girls, but without a specific sex-typed pattern. Women and men have been, are, and should be leaders. Coercive sexual activity directed at someone with whom the victim is at least casually acquainted is called An adolescent's sexual identity involves all of the following EXCEPT: 81. Gender intensification ill prepares both men and women for the roles that they will later perform. correct incorrect. 12. Which of the following did NOT influence his decision to wait? Testosterone, when released in the womb, cau… Results from a review of 46 meta-analyses support the gender similarities hypothesis. correct incorrect. Which of the following factors is the MOST likely contributing factor? He interacts with others, chooses activities, and interprets information in accordance with this cognitive representation of "maleness." 84. Testosterone is a sex hormone, which is more present in males than females, and affects development and behavior both before and after birth. For example, a child who lives in a very traditional culture might believe that a woman’s role is in the caring and raising of children, while a man’s role is in work and industry. Santiago waited until he was married to have sex. The 2007 National Assessment of Education Progress reports: 37. 48 an example of gender role scripts 49 the gender intensification... 49. the gender-intensification hypothesis. Potential negative effects of hormone replacement therapy include which of the following? The gender difference in verbal skills is small and varies depending on the type of skill assessed (e.g., vocabulary, essay writing). What is the likely reaction of their peers? Social cognitive theory attributes psychological differences between men and women to: 18. What is MOST likely happening to Denise? These pressures are thought to come from a variety of sources and are intended to prepare adolescents for their adult roles as women and men. assertions or predictions, often derived from theories that can be tested. Mr. Martin is 84 years old and has no major health problems. Coercive sexual activity directed at someone with whom the victim is at least casually acquainted is: 70. Male rapists share all of the following characteristics EXCEPT: 68. This research will attempt to test the hypothesis whether there is gender difference in use of non verbal communication between male and female with use of gestures. 43. 63. Joe has: 66. Recovery from rape depends on all of the following EXCEPT: 71. 25. According to the gender-intensification hypothesis, what is a likely result of adolescent boys attempting to be viewed as more masculine? The psychoanalytic theory purports that gender typing occurs: 20. Which of the following is a documented correlation? D) gender schema theory. They hold to: 55. Which of the following is NOT a typically reported consequence of sexual harassment in women? Kyle and Angie have decided to wait until they are married to have sex. Which of the following statements is FALSE? ... the social role hypothesis predicts that. 14. Which of the following is a likely reason that boys may find it difficult to learn the masculine gender role? the idea that the pressure to behave in sex-appropriate ways intensifies during adolescence: Term. Programs that aim to reduce adolescent pregnancy, such as Taking Care of Business and Health Bridge: 93. They form exclusive, male peer groups and minimize interaction with females. 75. Dr. Barlow displays pictures of 10 individuals and asks students to match them with a list of occupations. 48. Identity: Term. 45. Attention problems and lack of self-regulation are __________ linked to sexual risk taking in adolescence. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) affect approximately __________ U.S. adults. Answer: c Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty Level: Basic Feedback: 436 Learning Goal 3: Describe the development of gender through the life span 47. 89. 101. Females are most likely to be stereotyped as expressing more warmth and sensitivity, whereas males are most likely to be stereotyped as expressing more: 31. According to William Pollack, Chad is: 44. According to the gender-intensification hypothesis, what is a likely result of adolescent boys attempting to be viewed as more masculine? According to gender schema theory, gender typing occurs when a child: 26. What percent of emerging adults report not having sex at all in the last year or only having sex a couple of times? Researchers have found links between hormone levels and certain behaviors. 97. The midlife transition in which fertility declines in men and women is known as: 98. According to Nichols (2010), the success of Minuchin’s work with families at Wiltwyck led to a groundbreaking book, Families of the Sums (1967), which first outlined the structural model. According to the gender-intensification hypothesis, what is a likely result of adolescent boys attempting to be viewed as more masculine? Her view most closely matches: 17. According to a recent national study, what percentage of U.S. high school seniors were currently sexually active? Which of the following 16 year-old girls is MOST likely to become pregnant? What general class of sex hormones primarily influences the development of female physical sex characteristics and helps regulate the menstrual cycle? Despite their positive status in the family and culture, __________ over the age of 70 are the poorest population group in the U.S. 54. __________ is one's sense of being male or female. One research study revealed that the more time adolescent girls and boys spent watching television for entertainment, the more ___ their body images.-negative Adolescents’ gender attitudes and behavior are powerfully influenced by peer approval or disapproval. This is an example of which gender development theory? 96. What percentage of U.S. high school students report using a condom the last time they had sex? Hyde's meta-analysis found all of the following gender differences EXCEPT: 41. The same sex hormones occur in both men and women, but differ in amounts and in the effect that they have upon different parts of the body. Dr. Estrada attributes gender differences to the possibility that women's lower-status positions in society have encouraged them to become more cooperative and less dominant than men. The idea that women show an adaptive preference for choosing long-term mates who can provide their offspring is an expression of: 16. Sexual function in someone as old as Mr. Martin is: 106. the heritability of gender identity is similar to the heritability of major personality traits; D.socialization determines gender identity but only in the presence of specific chromosomal and hormonal patterns. Second, we found gender intensification in self‐conceptualizations as masculine and feminine: More so than children and emerging adults, middle adolescents adopted stereotypically masculine and feminine traits. They engage in risk-taking and rebellious behavior. Males, following a stressful event, will experience: 32. Minuchin’s (2010) reputation as a virtuoso therapist grew, and he became the director of the Philadelphia Child Guidance Clinic in 1965. 86. 74. Broad impressions and beliefs about females and males are termed: 28. Pat is a: 6. Society typically tells us that there are two sexes, male and female, and that they align with two genders, man and woman. A gender difference that appears early in development and across cultures is that, compared to girls, boys are more: 39. Older women from ethnic minority groups warrant special attention because they often face triple jeopardy in: 52. Question 10 Multiple Choice 1 of 1 points In his research on how adolescents and adults resolve everyday moral dilemmas, Larry Walker found that most people rely on Selected Answer: considerations of costs and benefits. Which of the following statements regarding sexuality in children is true? The Panel on the Understanding and Control of Violent Behavior limits its consideration of violent human behavior to interpersonal violence, which is defined as behavior that "threatens, attempts, or actually inflicts physical harm." B) androgyny. Which of the following statements regarding the male role in society is accurate? Social cognitive therapists characterize the playground for elementary school-aged children as: 23. 94. 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Female brain adolescence is: Definition of being male or female hypothesis what! In middle adulthood and her doctor notes a sharp decrease in estrogen levels in 3D mental shows... Testes and adrenal glands have sex as often as they did when they were younger have! Form schema related to what men and traditionally female jobs with pictures of women contraceptive use is increasing the! Groups warrant special attention because they often face triple jeopardy in: 52 transmitted (!