Although Corinth did not view Athens as a direct threat, Corinth had both Reasons Athens lost the War. Map of the Peloponnesian War, Beginningby U.S. Military Academy (Public Domain). No tribute was paid except in times of war (mainly against the Delian league), when one third of the military of a state could be requested. Corinth needed to make Athenian actions seem unforgivable, and hence bring Sparta to war so that Corinth could regain its sphere of influence. Megara a member of the Peloponnesian League since 445 BC Megarian Decree (before 435?) This pitted the League against Athens, Thebes, Corinth and Persia from 396 to 387 BCE. In 435 BC, Corinth faced a revolt by its colony Corcyra (Corfu). Pericles issued the decree to incite war (Diod. The "Peloponnesian League" was not really a "league" at all. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. The Spartans, meanwhile, were part of the Peloponnesian League (550 BC- 366 B.C.) Thucydides in his History of the Peloponnesian War describes the workings of the League. He seems to have thought that the placing of a garrison in Aegina was the first act of the League, as he says of this 'the first Peloponnesian War has begun.' Sparta decided to go to war with Athens. The league was organized with Sparta as the hegemon, and was controlled by the council of allies which was composed of two bodies: the assembly of Spartiates and the Congress of Allies. In the Peloponnesian War Sicyon followed the lead of Sparta and Corinth. The major players in the Peloponnesian League that we are aware of consisted of Sparta, Corinth, Kythira, Melos, Pylos, Mantinea, Ellis, Epidaurus, Boeotia, Lefkada and Ambracia. 17 Jan 2021. Sparta acquired two powerful allies, Corinth and Elis, by ridding Corinth of tyranny, and … Corinth, who had originally saved Athens in the First Syracusan War, were decisively defeated after an Athenian invasion of the peninsula and the occupation of Corinth itself. Last modified March 09, 2016. The Corcyrean Conflict However, other poleis could hold influence comparable to Sparta herself, especially Corinth… Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. of city-states. As we have seen, the debate that ensued made the Corinthian motives quite clear. I 305) thought that Corinth put great pressure on Sparta, as in 431, and succeeded in getting her to declare war. Unlike other confederacies such as the contemporary Delian League, the Peloponnesian League had no single binding agreement but was, rather, a collection of city-states (poleis) each having negotiated their own terms with dominant Sparta. Unlike in the Delian League where Athens compelled members to pay a tribute under any circumstances, the members of the Peloponnesian League had only to contribute militarily when required. I discuss first Thucydides’ statement at 1.19.1 on oligarchies and the Peloponnesian League; then the archaic and classical Spartan treaties preserved in the literary and epigraphic record, which present problems of interpretation that must be addressed in the light of Thuc. Furthermore, most of its members were not from the Peloponnese, but rather were located outside the Peloponnese Peninsula. Sparta did not join the Delian League, but remained in the Peloponnesian League. … The common name used in contemporary documents was "The Lacedemonians and their allies", emphasizing the leadership of Sparta. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. Cartwright, M. (2016, March 09). Besides having the largest and most formidable army, Sparta's domination of the Peloponnesian League was ensured by the fact that the League's military force was always led by a Spartan - either one of the two Spartan kings or a senior Spartan commander. Megarians may not use Athenian harbours or markets. The name of the League derives from the geographical location of its member states in the Peloponnese of southern Greece. The first member was Tegea which, after resisting Spartan attack, was compelled to form an alliance. Only in the case of a religious obligation (e.g. External links. All alliances were made with Sparta only, so if they so wished, member states had to form separate alliances with each other. A battle took place, with Corcyra and Athens fighting against Corinth and Sparta, who was an ally of Corinth due to it being a source of income. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. In 338 BC, the Peloponnesian League was disbanded when Philip II of Macedon, father of Alexander the Great, formed the League of Corinth after defeating Thebes and Athens, incorporating all the Peloponnesian states except Sparta. From the 6th … Corinth was an ally of Sparta. "Peloponnesian League." Quizlet flashcards, activities and … Realizing that they could need allies as well, Corcyra went to Athens. The members of this league were ostensibly equal, but Sparta held all of the power, as the league was founded on the strength of Sparta’s hoplite military. Wars among the members were possible as well, with Thucydides mentioning a battle between Mantineans and Tegeans (and their respective allies) during the Peloponnesian war. The Lacedaemonians were not content with simply sending aid to Sicily; they also resolved to take the war to the Athenians. Again in the Corinthian war, Sicyon sided with Sparta and became its base of operations against the allied troops round Corinth. It was a conservative alliance which supported oligarchies and opposed tyrannies and democracies. Sparta also directly interfered in the domestic affairs of member states, often promoting rule by an oligarchy favourable to Spartan policy. Ancient History Encyclopedia. … Reliable sources for the League’s history are scarce, but it is thought to have included Corinth, Kythira, Melos, Pylos, Mantinea, Elis, Epidaurus, Boeotia, Lefkada, Ambrakia, and … In 369 BCE, it was captured and garrisoned by the Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Peloponnesian_League/. Athens decided to grant Corcyra an alliance, but only i… While this is what we believe to be the correct membership, due to the time and date of the Peloponnesian League formation it’s impossible to be one hundred percent certain. Corinth and other members of the Peloponnesian League were unhappy about Sparta’s lack of leadership. If Corinth left the Peloponnesian League, Athenian power relative to the Peloponnesian League (Pericles's primary adversary) would grow diplomatically, not merely through the alliance with Corcyra but also by dividing Sparta from Corinth, its chief and wealthiest ally and the only one with a significant navy, and, not least important, by reducing its access to northern Greece. Sparta’s policy of interfering in the government of League members continued with their heavy-handed treatment of both Mantinea in 385 BCE, dividing up its villages, and with war against Phleious 381-379 BCE. The Corinthians accused Sparta of not having the gumption to challenge the growing Athenian empire, goading them on to fight. After the Persian Wars, Sparta withdrew from the Hellenic League, reforming the Peloponnesian League with its original allies. … The Athenians backed the Corcyrians and sent a force of triremes to prevent the Corinthians from re-imposing their rule. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Corinth was an ancient Greek city-state situated between the Peloponnese and Attica/Boeotia in mainland Greece. Nor was it really "Peloponnesian." https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Peloponnesian_League&oldid=992853073, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 13:20. However, other poleis could hold influence comparable to Sparta herself, especially Corinth, due to its wealth and navy.. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. Eventually, in 423 BC, Sparta summoned the members of the Peloponnesian League to air their grievances with Athens. This is Sparta: Fierce warriors of the ancient world - Craig Zimmer, Spartan forces under Cleomenes I attack the, A force of Athenian peltasts defeat Spartan hoplites on Sphaktria in the, Spartan soldiers return from campaigning Thrace, some as, Athenian leader Iphikrates employs peltasts to defeat Spartan hoplites at Lechaion near, The Politics of Ethnicity and the Crisis of the Peloponnesian League. On the other hand Kahrstedt (Gr. Description: The Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.) Known mainly for being one of the two rivals in the Peloponnesian War , against the Delian League, which was dominated by Athens. It would not be exaggerated to say that all Greek nations had now more or less become members of … Event though Corinth did remind Athens that they kept the Peloponnesian League out of the Samian War, Athens still accepted Corcyra into the League. By the end of the 6th century, Sparta had become the most powerful state in the Peloponnese, and was the political and military hegemon over Argos, the next most powerful state. There was no equality at all between the members as might be implied by the term "league." Some Athenian territory had been abandoned after the First Syracusan War. The states of the north-eastern Peloponnese, including Corinth, Sicyon and Epidauros, adhered to their Spartan allegiance, but as the war continued in the 360s BC, many joined the Thebans or took a neutral position, though Elis and some of the Arcadian states realigned themselves with Sparta. Web. Once again though, the Corinthians, mainly as Sparta’s naval ally, had a … Each city-state made a bilateral alliance with Sparta, and swore to follow them. The fortification of Decelea prevented the shipment of supplies overland to Athens, and forced all supplies to be brought in by sea at increased expense. The League was the oldest and longest-lasting political association in the ancient Greek world. Corinth suffered badly in the First Peloponnesian War, for which it was responsible after attacking Megara. fused with Spartan treatment of the Peloponnesian League as a whole. This assembly was led by an ephor and decisions about such matters as military campaigns and new memberships were taken by majority. Despite the collaborative nature of the victory, Sparta alone received the plunder taken from the defeated states and the tribute payments from the former Athenian … The Peloponnesian League was an alliance of states in the Peloponnese in the 6th and 5th centuries BC. This might have been caused by Sparta and its allies' unease over Athenian efforts to increase their power. This caused Corinth to ask the Peloponnesian League to declare war against the Delian League, and of course the already threatened Spartans agreed, thus causing the Great Peloponnesian War in 431 BCE. Naxos … Only Sparta could call a Congress of the League. Withdrawing within the walls of their city, the Athenians would survive sustained by supplies brought in by sea, while using their fleet to raid … The Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE) was fought between Athens and its empire, known as the Delian League, and the Peloponnesian League, led by Sparta. The Peloponnesian War raged from 431 to 404 BCE. The Peloponnesian League was an alliance in the Peloponnesus from the 6th to the 4th centuries BC, dominated by Sparta. Continued Spartan ambitions in central and northern Greece, Asia Minor and Sicily once again dragged the city and the League into another protracted conflict, the Corinthian Wars. In 405 BC, 180 ships fighting for Sparta, Persia, Corinth, and the Peloponnesian League won the decisive Battle of Aegospotami over 170 ships fighting for Athens and the Delian League. A brief treatment of the Peloponnesian War follows. This was potentially a problem since Corinth was the most important ally of Sparta. The great Corinthian victory at … Corcyra operated a fleet of 120 galleys.  Sparta's only "alternative" was to sink into oblivion. Copy this URL: Embed code: Change dimensions . Although Athens and Corinth were at odds during this war, by the time of the Corinthian War (395-386 B.C. Sparta saw the alliance Athens had formed with Corcyra as an act of aggression against Sparta and her allies, the Peloponnesian league. Common features, though, of this loose association were the requirement of members to swear to hold common 'friends and enemies', promise reciprocal assistance, and follow the military ambition of their leader (hegemon), Sparta. The war was divided into 3 phases: The Archidamian War, The Sicilian war and The Ionian or Decelean War: phase. 1 The term "Peloponnesian League," unattested in the sources (which refer to "the Lacedaemonians and their allies" or "the Peloponnesians") is a mod ern convenience to describe the cities more or less subject to Sparta and bound by unequal treaties to "have the same friends and enemies as the Spartans, and to follow the Spartans wheresoever they may lead" (e.g. Sparta at the time was the leader of an alliance of cities called the Peloponnesian League, founded to challenge Athens' growing power. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 09 Mar 2016. In the Peloponnesian War, which had ended in 404 BC, Sparta had enjoyed the support of nearly every mainland Greek state and the Persian Empire, and in the months and years following that war, a number of the island states of the Aegean had come under its control. 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And Boeotia in the case of a religious obligation ( e.g 366 B.C. most! Support, however, Sparta over-reached itself in trying to crush long-time rival Thebes -. Most of its members allies were fighting alone … Peloponnesian War pitted Athens and Corinth were at odds during War... Naxos … in reality, the terms `` Spartan League '' or `` Peloponnesian League… brief! Size of the Peloponnesian War and Thucydides interfered in the Congress, regardless of that 's! Only, so if they so wished, member states, often promoting rule by an favourable... Mark cartwright, M. ( 2016, March 09 ) incite War ( 431-404 B.C. help, offering Athens. Long been Spartan … the actions of Corinth and her allies against a League of city-states headed by.! Then lost the even more crucial Battle of Leuctra in 371 BCE the... Athenian territory had been abandoned after the First Peloponnesian War Sicyon followed the lead of Sparta and Corinth at!