While Ptolemy I did not intentionally seek territory outside Egypt, he would, however, take advantage of an occasion if it arose and he would occupy the island of Cyprus in c. 318 BCE. A second cult, which never gained popularity, was devoted to the god of healing Serapis. Ptolemaic Dynasty ca. The rulers were members of the Ptolemaic family, a Macedonian family that had ties to Alexander the Great. Of or relating to the astronomer Ptolemy. After the king’s death, he had led the campaign to divide the empire among the leading generals and in the Partition of Babylon, and to his delight, he received the land he had always craved, Egypt. Regrettably, she failed to find compassion in Octavian, the future Emperor Augustus, and committed suicide. This meant that even Cleopatra VII, the last Ptolemy to rule Egypt and the subject of playwrights, poets, and movies, was not Egyptian but Macedonian. Ptolemy VIII was succeeded by his eldest son in 116 BCE. They remained completely Greek, both in their language & traditions. It was a marriage he would regret. Specify between which dates you want to search, and what keywords you are looking for. The book contains twelve chapters, by various authors, discussing aspects of the Greek and Egyptian bilingual and trilingual inscriptions from Egypt during the Ptolemaic period, from the conquest by Alexander the Great (332 BC) to the death of Kleopatra VII (30 BC). The Ptolemaic dynasty / ˌ t ɒ l ə ˈ m eɪ. Following the Battle of Panium in 200 BCE Egypt lost valuable territory in the Aegean and Asia Minor, including Palestine. Alexandria had a more strategic location, much closer to both the Mediterranean Sea and Greece. With the death of Caesar and the balance of power in Rome in question, she sided, unfortunately, with the Roman general Mark Antony, only to lose it all at the Battle of Actium. In 246 BCE Ptolemy III invaded Syria to support his sister’s husband Antiochus II in the Third Syrian War against Seleucus II but only acquired towns in Syria and Asia Minor. In 101 BCE he supposedly murdered his mother Cleopatra IV. One of the unique and often misunderstood aspects of the Ptolemaic dynasty is how and why it never became Egyptian. Like many of his predecessors, he would marry two of his sisters, Cleopatra IV, mother of Berenice IV, and Cleopatra V Serene who gave him two sons. Ptolemaic Kingby Mark Cartwright (CC BY-NC-SA). So Cleomenes of Naucratis, who had been named the Egyptian finance minister by Alexander, was appointed by Perdiccas as an adjunct or hyparchos to watch (or spy) on Ptolemy. Ptolemaic synonyms, Ptolemaic pronunciation, Ptolemaic translation, English dictionary definition of Ptolemaic. The princess’ sudden death brought about the Canopus Decree (238 BCE) which, among other proclamations, honored her as a goddess. Unfortunately, Ptolemy could not avoid some involvement with the other commanders, and he gave refuge to Seleucus and later supported Rhodes against the invading forces of Demetrius the Besieger, son of Antigonus. ᵻ k / (Ancient Greek: Πτολεμαῖοι, Ptolemaioi), sometimes also known as the Lagids / ˈ l æ dʒ ᵻ d z / or Lagidae / ˈ l æ dʒ ᵻ ˌ d iː / (Ancient Greek: Λαγίδαι, Lagidai, after Lagus, Ptolemy I's father), was a Macedonian Greek royal family which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period. Except for the first two Ptolemaic pharaohs, Ptolemy I and his son Ptolemy II, most of the family was fairly inept and, in the end, only maintained authority with the assistance of Rome. In true Ptolemaic fashion, he married his brother’s widow, Cleopatra II, only to replace her with her daughter, his niece, Cleopatra III. The Ptolemaic dynasty controlled Egypt for almost three centuries (305 – 30 BCE), eventually falling to the Romans. Wasson, D. L. (2016, September 29). The Ptolemys coexisted as both Egyptian pharaohs as well as Greek monarchs. Last modified September 29, 2016. Jealousy and in-fighting were common. Dates are years of reign. Her other children, Alexander Helos, Cleopatra Serene, and Ptolemy Philadelphus were younger and were brought to Rome to be raised by Octavian's wife. Several queens exercised regal authority, but the most famous and successful was Cleopatra VII (51 BCE-30 BCE), with her two brothers and her son as successive nominal co-rulers. In every respect they remained completely Greek, both in their language and traditions. [Livius: Articles in Ancient History].The House of Ptolemy - e-edition of E. R. Bevan's 1927 classic historical study [archived on Bill Thayer's Lacus Curtius]. As a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, she was a descendant of its founder Ptolemy I Soter, a Macedonian Greek general and companion of Alexander the Great. The Late Period of Egypt (525-332 BCE) is the era following the Third Intermediate Period (1069-525) and preceding the brief Hellenistic Period (332-323 BCE) when Egypt was ruled by the Argead officials installed by Alexander the Great prior to the rise of the Greek Ptolemaic Dynasty (323-30 BCE). Ptolemy I died in 282 BCE, and as his successor he named his son Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Sister-loving) (308 – 246 BCE). Wasson, Donald L. "Ptolemaic Dynasty." Ptolemy IV supposedly murdered his uncle, brother, and mother, while Ptolemy VIII killed his fourteen-year-old son and chopped him into pieces. PTOLEMY V, EPIPHANES (203 - 180 BC) Ptolemy V, also called Epiphanes ("the illustrious one"), was the last of the Ptolemaic rulers to hold control over Palestine and the people of Israel. Web. He was the son and successor of Ptolemy V … One interesting suggestion made in the decree was for a new calendar, one that included 365 days with one additional day every four years, but it was not adopted. The Ptolemaic dynasty, also known as the Lagids or Lagidae, was a Macedonian Greek royal family who ruled over Egypt. According to one historian, she was a descendant of such great Greek queens as Olympias, the overly-possessive mother of Alexander the Great. All the male rulers of the dynasty took the name Ptolemy. Still, there was his ongoing rivalry with Perdiccas. Ptolemy X Alexander I (140 – 88 BCE) was the younger brother of Ptolemy IX and had served as governor of Cyprus until his mother brought him to Egypt in 107 BCE, replacing his brother. The magnificent city had splendid palaces, temples, and libraries oriented on a Hellenistic street grid; cemeteries stretched to the east and west. As with much of the former Alexandrian empire, Greek would become the language of government and commerce. He regained the throne in 88 BCE and ruled until his death in 80 BCE. As with the rest of the Mediterranean - described once as a Roman lake - Egypt submitted to Roman rule and the power of the Ptolemys ended. The most famous member of the line was the last queen, Cleopatra VII, known for her role in the Roman political battles between Julius Caesar and Pompey, and later between Octavian and Mark Antony. The next pharaoh Ptolemy XIII (63 – 47 BCE) was the brother and husband of the infamous Cleopatra VII. Oddly, while they ruled Egypt, they never became Egyptian. Finally, an amnesty was reached in 118 BCE. This unique lighthouse was an immense structure of three stories. 2. Several systems exist for numbering the later rulers; the one used here is the one most widely used by modern scholars. In 163 BCE his brother and he finally reached a compromise whereby Ptolemy VI acquired Egypt while Ptolemy VIII ruled Cyrene. His reign was marked by generous benefactions to the Egyptian temples, but he was detested as a tyrant by the Greeks, and the historical accounts of the reign emphasize his stormy relations with the Alexandrian populace. Ptolemy Vby Mark Cartwright (CC BY-NC-SA). Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (also known as Auletes) was another son of Ptolemy IX succeeding Ptolemy XI in 80 BCE. In fact, the Ptolemys would rarely leave the city and then only to take a pleasure cruise down the Nile. Some wanted to wait until the birth of Roxanne and Alexander’s son, the future Alexander IV, while others chose a more immediate and self-serving remedy: to simply divide it among themselves. After the death of Cleomenes, Ptolemy I quickly and firmly began to establish himself in Egypt. They frequently ruled jointly with their wives, who were often also their sisters. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. Coins of Egyptian Ptolemaic Empire rulers: 323-31 BC. All the male rulers of the dynasty took the name Ptolemy, while queens regnant were all called Cleopatra Ptolemy V Epiphanes (Made-Manifest) (210 – 180 BCE) was the son of Ptolemy IV and Arsinoe III and due to the sudden death of his parents inherited the throne as a small child. Her suicide at the conquest by Rome marked the end of Ptolemaic rule in Egypt. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. License. The Ptolemaic Dynasty The Ptolemaic Dynasty was the 32nd and last dynasty in Ancient Egypt. After Alexander’s death in 323 BC, his empire was divided between his generals. Ptolemaic Dynasty Timeline. Unfortunately, he and his wife were both murdered in a palace coup in 205 BCE. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. Ptolemy V’s successor Ptolemy VI Philometor (Mother-Loving) began his reign, like his father, as a small child, serving with his mother until her unexpected death in 176 BCE. Ptolemaic Egypt rapidly established itself as an economic powerhouse of the ancient world at the end of the 4th century BCE. The next few pharaohs made little impact if any on Egypt, and for the first time, a rising power in the west made a major impact, Rome. In 305 BCE, he declared himself King Ptolemy I, later known as "Soter" (saviour). In 206 BCE dissidence arose in the Egyptian city of Thebes, and it would remain outside Ptolemaic control for twenty years. Search through the entire ancient history timeline. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Like the earlier dynasties of ancient Egypt, the Ptolemaic dynasty practiced inbreeding including sibling marriage, but this did not start in earnest until nearly a century into the dynasty's history. He ruled jointly with his mother Cleopatra III until 107 BCE when he fled to Cyprus after being overthrown by his brother. He married the Seleucid princess Cleopatra I in 193 BCE. Many of those who followed failed to strengthen Egypt both internally and externally. However, the Roman commander grew irate because he wanted to kill Pompey himself. But what happened to the site when Egypt was under the rule of the Macedonian Ptolemaic dynasty, when Greeks ruled Egypt? Ptolemy I (Soter) 323-282 BC; Judean coins "YHD" coins in the early Ptolemaic empire (Egypt): "Coins 29-30: These coins too, on one side of which is seen a youthful male head and on the other an eagle, lack the characteristics of the Persian period. After years of oppression under the Persians, the people of Egypt had welcomed Alexander and his conquering army. Physcon was able to rule in Egypt until 116 bce with his sister Cleopatra II (except for a period in 131–130 bce when she was in revolt) and her daughter Cleopatra III. Apparently, Ptolemy II was one the last truly great pharaohs of Egypt. She endeared herself to the Egyptian people, participating in many Egyptian festivals and ceremonies as well as being the only Ptolemy to learn the Egyptian language besides speaking Hebrew, Ethiopian, and other dialects. She ruled Egypt for 22 years, controlling much of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. In 305 BCE, he declared himself King Ptolemy I, later known as "Soter" (saviour). The sudden death of Alexander the Great in 323 BCE brought chaos and confusion to his vast empire, for he died without naming an heir or successor, saying instead that the empire was left 'to the best.' Ruling for nearly three centuries, the Ptolemies were the longest and final Egyptian dynasty. Their rule lasted from 305 BC to 30 BC for a total of 275 years. Ptolemy I’s advisor on the project was Demetrius of Phaleron, a graduate of Aristotle’s Lyceum in Athens; the library truly became a center of Hellenistic culture. He then married the daughter of Cleopatra V Serene (his niece), Berenice III. After a quick, decisive victory, he turned the fallen conqueror over to the city who promptly executed him. Their reign lasted from 323 BC to 30 BC according to the Biblical Timeline Poster with World History. Ptolemy VI Philometor 180-164 & 163-145 B.C. Unlike many of his successors, Ptolemy II expanded Egypt with the reclaiming of Cyrene (the city had declared independence from Egypt) and acquisitions in Asia Minor and Syria. Lastly, the final pharaoh of Egypt was Cleopatra VII who is known to history as simply Cleopatra. Books Ptolemy I Soter, Macedonian general of Alexander the Great, who became ruler of Egypt (323–285 bc) and founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty, which reigned longer than any other dynasty established on the soil of the Alexandrian empire and only succumbed to the Romans in 30 bc. Their rule lasted for 275 years, from 305 BC to 30 BC. Realizing Perdiccas' ploy, Ptolemy knew he had to free himself of Cleomenes, so he accused the unwary minister of 'fiscal malfeasance' - not a completely trumped-up charge - and had him executed. The murder of the popular young commander caused uproar among many of his fellow officers. Ptolemy, a Macedonian and one of Alexander the Great 's generals, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexander's death in 323 BCE. Cite This Work Wasson, Donald L. "Ptolemaic Dynasty." Of the fifteen Ptolemaic marriages, ten were between brother and sister while two were with a niece or cousin. Unfortunately, the library and its contents were destroyed in a series of fires during its years under Roman control. Other resources on line: Ptolemies - Jona Lendering's illustrated overview of the Ptolemaic dynasty. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. However, while the old Egyptian gods were respected – one did not want to anger the gods – two new cults arose: the first was dedicated to Alexander the Great, which for the Greek population served as a way to express their continued loyalty to the Ptolemys. III. In 145 BCE Ptolemy VI died in battle in Syria. To keep peace with the temple priests, he restored numerous religious objects stolen by the Persians. He left Egypt after being expelled in 88 BCE only to be lost at sea. Egypt had a closely controlled economy; much of the land was royal land and permission was needed to fell a tree or even to breed pigs. Actually, this was not uncommon for there was little love if ever between the city’s citizens and the royal family. His sole purpose was to make Egypt great again. He married Berenice II from the Greek city of Cyrene. Unfortunately, war and revolt by Seleucid and Macedonian kings with hopes to seize Egyptian lands followed his ascension. The hostility did not subside when Ptolemy stole Alexander’s body as it was being transported to a newly built. Ptolemy I Soterby Marie-Lan Nguyen (Public Domain). Cleopatra VII Philopator (Koinē Greek: Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; 69 BC – 10 August 30 BC) was the last active ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt. A civil war ravaged Egypt lasting from 132 to 124 BCE; it especially devastated the capital city of Alexandria, which happened to hate Ptolemy VIII. Aside from Alexandria, another city, less glamorous, was built in Upper Egypt: Ptolemais was founded as a center for the influx of newly arrived Greek residents. Of course, since Egypt had an economy based on agriculture, taxes based on the census and land surveys were essential. The last Ptolemaic queen, Cleopatra VII (l. c. 69-30 BCE), remained Macedonian but spoke Egyptian as well as other languages. Ptolemy XIII’s army was defeated after an intense battle, and he drowned in the Nile River when his boat overturned. The Ptolemys coexisted as both Egyptian pharaohs as well as Greek monarchs. He … After awarding Egypt and Cyprus to Rome, Ptolemy XI was placed on the throne by the Roman general Cornelius Sulla and ruled jointly with his step-mother Cleopatra Berenice until he murdered her. With the assistance of Rome, Ptolemy VI regained nominal control of Egypt, but his reign - ruling with his brother and wife - remained full of unrest. 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