Aspasia of Miletus was a scholar and philosopher whose intellectual influence distinguished her in Athenian culture, which treated women as second-class citizens during the 5th century B.C.E. The motive power was greed, that strange passion for power and possession which no power and no possession satisfy. Plato's Philosopher King from The Republic Primary Source. Euboea and Megara revolted. [4] Simon Hornblower has argued that Pericles' selection of this play, which presents a nostalgic picture of Themistocles' famous victory at Salamis, shows that the young politician was supporting Themistocles against his political opponent Cimon, whose faction succeeded in having Themistocles ostracized shortly afterwards. His aristocratic father had led the Athenian assembly and fought at the Battle of Salamis in the Persian Wars. [33] He then unsuccessfully tried to take Oeniadea on the Corinthian gulf, before returning to Athens. He was descended, through his mother, from the powerful and historically influential Alcmaeonid family. During the Age of Pericles, Athens blossomed as a center of education, art, culture, and democracy. He increased Athens’ power through his use of the Delian League to form the Athenian empire and led his city through the First Peloponnesian War (460-446 BCE) and the first two years of the Second Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE). For example, he would often avoid banquets, trying to be frugal. Is the worst thing in governing to "rush into action before the consequences have been debated?" Ostracon mentioning Pericles, son of Xanthippus. [21] He first proposed a decree that permitted the poor to watch theatrical plays without paying, with the state covering the cost of their admission. [4][48] His successors never lived up to Pericles' ideal leadership and Athens suffered accordingly. eval(ez_write_tag([[970,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_3',168,'0','0'])); In 431 B.C.E., while peace already was precarious, Archidamus II, Sparta's king, sent a new delegation to Athens, demanding that the Athenians submit to Sparta's demands. He brings Athens's political atmosphere to life with archaeological evidence and the accounts of those close to Pericles, including Thucydides, Aristophanes, Herodotus, … Pericles: Last Speech (Thucydides Book II, 59-64) After the second invasion of the Peloponnesians there had been a change in the spirit of the Athenians. Ober, Josiah. [46] Angelos Vlachos, a Greek Academician, points out that the utilization of the alliance's treasury, initiated and executed by Pericles, is one of the largest embezzlements in human history; this misappropriation financed, however, some of the most marvelous artistic creations of the ancient world.[60]. Cimon, son of Miltiades (the hero of Marathon, l. c. 555 - 489 BCE), was acquitted but this may have been due more to his political connections and influence than any failing on Pericles’ part to prosecute the case. The earliest is known as the Funeral Oration of Pericles.It was written by the Greek philosopher Thucydides (460-395 B.C.E. [94] Unwilling to engage the Spartan army in battle, he again led a naval expedition to plunder the coasts of the Peloponnese, this time taking 100 Athenian ships with him. [134], Ancient Greek writers call Pericles "Olympian" and vaunt his talents, referring to him "thundering and lightening and exciting Greece" and carrying the weapons of Zeus when orating. Kagan believes that Cimon adapted himself to the new conditions and promoted a political marriage between Periclean liberals and Cimonian conservatives. ", "Rather, the admiration of the present and succeeding ages will be ours, since we have not left our power without witness, but have shown it by mighty proofs; and far from needing a Homer for our panegyrist, or other of his craft whose verses might charm for the moment only for the impression which they gave to melt at the touch of fact, we have forced every sea and land to be the highway of our daring, and everywhere, whether for evil or for good, have left imperishable monuments behind us. Just before his death, Pericles' friends were concentrated around his bed, enumerating his virtues during peace and underscoring his nine war trophies. Later in life, this initial shyness would encourage the claims of his detractors that his consort Aspasia of Miletus (c. 470 - 410 BCE) taught him how to speak and wrote his speeches for him because, they said, there was no evidence of him learning oratory in his youth. [46], During the Second Sacred War Pericles led the Athenian army against Delphi and reinstated Phocis in its sovereign rights on the oracle. According to Paparrigopoulos, history vindicated Cimon, because Athens, after Pericles' death, sank into the abyss of political turmoil and demagogy. Pericles, following Athenian custom, was first married to one of his closest relatives, with whom he had two sons, Xanthippus and Paralus. (2018, March 28). [62] When the Samians revolted against Athenian rule, Pericles compelled the rebels to capitulate after a tough siege of eight months, which resulted in substantial discontent among the Athenian sailors. [117] It is for that reason that Hans Delbrück called him one of the greatest statesmen and military leaders in history. - Melissa Schwartzberg, Barbarians are expelled from Gallipoli by, Kresilas sculpts the idealised portrait statue of, Pericles Of Athens And The Birth Of Democracy, Thucydides: The War of the Peloponnesians and the Athenians, PLUTARCH: Lives of the noble Grecians and Romans. Cimon had served as a diplomat between Athens and Sparta a number of times since 478 BCE and, in 465 BCE, led the Athenian contingent of 4,000 soldiers to aid Sparta in putting down a rebellion by helots. Infoplease knows the value of having sources you can trust. Athanasios G. Platias and Constantinos Koliopoulos. Early accounts simply state that the Spartans did not like the look of Cimon’s soldiers. "[127] It is generally held that those succeeding him lacked his abilities and character.[128]. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. Shortly afterwards in the same year, Ephialtes was assassinated; these two events mark the beginning of Pericles’ rise to power. [96] In the summer of the same year an epidemic broke out and devastated the Athenians. Pericles Funeral Oration Primary Source. [61] When the Athenians ordered the two sides to stop fighting and submit the case to arbitration at Athens, the Samians refused. Greek Sources About Pericles . Pericles' mother, Agariste, was a scion of the powerful and controversial noble family of the Alcmaeonidae, and her familial connections played a crucial role in starting Xanthippus' political career. Grades: 9 th, 10 th, 11 th, 12 th. Richard A. Katula, "The Origins of Rhetoric", de Ste Croix, "The Character of the Athenian Empire. (II. [97] The exact identity of the disease is uncertain, and has been the source of much debate.η[›] The city's plight, caused by the epidemic, triggered a new wave of public uproar, and Pericles was forced to defend himself in an emotional final speech, a rendition of which is presented by Thucydides. In 442 B.C.E., the Athenian public ostracized Thucydides for ten years and Pericles was once again the unchallenged suzerain of the Athenian political arena. [34] In 451 B.C.E., Cimon is said to have returned from exile to negotiate a five years' truce with Sparta after a proposal of Pericles, an event which indicates a shift in Pericles' political strategy. [83] The terms were rejected by the Spartans, and, with neither side willing to back down, the two sides prepared for war. Great sculptors like Phidias (c. 480 - c. 430 BCE), who created the statue of Zeus at Olympia (considered one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World), as well as the statue of Athena Parthenos for the Parthenon worked at his craft and Myron (c. 480 - c. 440 BCE) the sculptor produced his masterpiece known as the Discus Thrower. Pericles, as commander-in-chief, led the Athenian forces in a number of battles but neither side could gain a significant advantage. [139] The promotion of such an arrogant imperialism is said to have ruined Athens. He read widely, showing an especial interest in philosophy, and is recognized as the first Athenian politician to attribute importance to philosophy as a practical discipline which could help guide and direct one’s thought and actions rather than a mere speculative past-time or the trade of the Sophists. [91] While the Spartan army remained in Attica, Pericles sent a fleet of 100 ships to loot the coasts of the Peloponnese and charged the cavalry to guard the ravaged farms close to the walls of the city. Samos was at war with Miletus over control of Priene, an ancient city of Ionia on the foot-hills of Mycale. Among these was the foreign-born writer and teacher Aspasia of Miletus and, in 445 BCE, he divorced his wife (name unknown) and began (or continued) a romantic relationship with Aspasia. What we know of Pericles comes from three main sources. [31] Cimon finally accepted the new democracy and did not oppose the citizenship law, after he returned from exile in 451 B.C.E.[32]. __________. Although democracy was developing in Athens long before Pericles, his initiatives allowed it to flourish and, as it did, so did Athenian culture. (114). The obvious purpose of these proposals was the instigation of a confrontation between Pericles and the people; this event, indeed, would come about a few years later. ", Libourel, Jan M., "The Athenian Disaster in Egypt.". Charles W. Fornara and Loren J. Samons, II. 6. Greece was not a united country at this time but a confederacy of city-states bound together through “shared blood, shared language, shared religion, and shared customs” (Herodotus as cited in Boardman, 127). [9] He enjoyed the company of the philosophers Protagoras, Zeno of Elea and Anaxagoras. Pericles (also spelled Perikles) (ca. 2 Four unpaired Lives. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Paparrigopoulos, Konstantinos (-Karolidis, Pavlos)(1925). [41] Kagan believes that Pericles used Callias, a brother-in-law of Cimon, as a symbol of unity and employed him several times to negotiate important agreements. Is the worst thing in governing to "rush into action before the consequences have been debated?" [121], In politics, Victor L. Ehrenberg argues that a basic element of Pericles' legacy is Athenian imperialism, which denies true democracy and freedom to the people of all but the ruling state. A gentleman of Tyre; my name, Pericles; My education been in arts and arms; Who, looking for adventures in the world, Was by the rough seas reft of ships … Pericles proposed a decree allowing the use of 9000 talents to finance the major rebuilding program of Athenian temples. Pericles' funeral Oration highlights how Athenian democracy encourages personal freedom & sets the city apart from the rest. The Funeral Oration of Pericles (431 BCE) Our constitution is called a democracy because the power is in the hands not of a minority but of the whole people. His greatest personal tragedy was the death of his sister and of both his legitimate sons, Xanthippus and Paralus, all affected by the epidemic, a calamity he never managed to overcome. After consultations with its allies, Sparta sent a deputation to Athens demanding certain concessions, such as the immediate expulsion of the Alcmaeonidae family including Pericles, and the retraction of the Megarian Decree, threatening war if the demands were not met. He has taught history, writing, literature, and philosophy at the college level. Throughout the war, Pericles was engaged in various cultural initiatives in Athens which brought him into regular contact with the leading intellectuals of the city. [76] Therefore he did not hesitate to send troops to Corcyra to reinforce the Corcyraean fleet, which was fighting against Corinth. License. Pericles' mother, Agariste, a scion of the powerful and controversial noble family of the Alcmaeonidae, and her familial connections played a crucial role in starting Xanthippus' political career. [36], Plutarch states that Cimon struck a power-sharing deal with his opponents, according to which Pericles would carry through the interior affairs and Cimon would be the leader of the Athenian army, campaigning abroad. [69][70] Aspasia was probably a hetaera and ran a brothel,[71][72] although these allegations are disputed by modern scholars. Jan M. Libourel, "The Athenian Disaster in Egypt,", H. T. Wade-Grey, "The Question of Tribute in 449/8, Fornara-Samons, "Pericles' Political Career," in, Nicole Loraux, "Aspasie, l'étrangère, l'intellectuelle," in. The truce allowed Pericles to focus his attention on other areas. "Pericles." Knowledge of the life of Pericles derives largely from two sources. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-large-mobile-banner-2','ezslot_4',167,'0','0']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-large-mobile-banner-2','ezslot_5',167,'0','1']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-large-mobile-banner-2','ezslot_6',167,'0','2'])); Between 438 B.C.E.-436 B.C.E. eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'newworldencyclopedia_org-medrectangle-4','ezslot_2',162,'0','0'])); Pericles was born around 495 B.C.E., in the deme of Cholargos just north of Athens.α[›] He was the son of the politician Xanthippus, who, although ostracized in 485–4 B.C.E., returned to Athens to command the Athenian contingent in the Greek victory at Mycale just five years later. (making the Athenian interventions in Egypt and Cyprus violations of the peace), and renegotiated at the conclusion of the campaign in Cyprus, taking force again by 449–448 B.C.E. Thucydides' modern commentators are still trying to unravel the puzzle of Pericles' orations and to figure out if the wording belongs to the Athenian statesman or the historian.ιβ[›] Since Pericles never wrote down or distributed his orations,ιγ[›] no historians are able answer this with certainty; Thucydides recreated three of them from memory and, thereby, it cannot be ascertained that he did not add his own notions and thoughts.ιδ[›] Although Pericles was a main source of his inspiration, some historians have noted that the passionate and idealistic literary style of the speeches Thucydides attributes to Pericles is completely at odds with Thucydides' own reserved, analytical writing style.ιε[›] This might, however, be the result of the incorporation of the genre of rhetoric into the genre of historiography. Tracy compiles and translates the scattered, elusive primary sources relating to Pericles. Greek Primary Sources Biblical Worldview Questions Name: _____ 5. Pericles promoted the arts, literature, and philosophy and gave free reign to some of the most inspired writers, artists, and thinkers of his time. Wade-Grey, H. T., "The Question of Tribute in 449/8 B. C.". [43], In the spring of 449 B.C.E., Pericles proposed the Congress Decree, which led to a meeting ("Congress") of all Greek states in order to consider the question of rebuilding the temples destroyed by the Persians. HistoryWiz Primary Source. At the beginning of 431 BCE Athens entered into the Second Peloponnesian War with Sparta which would end in Athens’ defeat; but Pericles would not live to see the fall of his city. "[122][123] Kagan criticizes the Periclean strategy on four counts: first, that by rejecting minor concessions it brought about war; second, that it was unforeseen by the enemy and hence lacked credibility; third, that it was too feeble to exploit any opportunities; and fourth, that it depended on Pericles for its execution and thus was bound to be abandoned after his death. He started an ambitious project that built most of the surviving structures on the Acropolis (including the Parthenon). Sources for Pericles In constructing Pericles, Shakespeare relied upon Apollonius of Tyre, an ancient tale, lost forever in its original Greek, translated into Latin around the 5th century, into Old English in the 11th century, and into English by John Gower in the late 14th century.It is the version translated by Gower that Shakespeare used as his primary source for Pericles. Aspasia, who was noted for her ability as a conversationalist and adviser, was accused of corrupting the women of Athens in order to satisfy Pericles' perversions. Clearchus proposed the Coinage Decree, which imposed Athenian silver coinage, weights and measures on all of the allies. ", "Remember, too, that if your country has the greatest name in all the world, it is because she never bent before disaster; because she has expended more life and effort in war than any other city, and has won for herself a power greater than any hitherto known, the memory of which will descend to the latest posterity. Hatred and unpopularity at the moment have fallen to the lot of all who have aspired to rule others.". he delivered his monumental and emotional Funeral Oration, honoring the Athenians who died for their city. Sources for Pericles In constructing Pericles, Shakespeare relied upon Apollonius of Tyre, an ancient tale, lost forever in its original Greek, translated into Latin around the 5th century, into Old English in the 11th century, and into English by John Gower in the late 14th century.It is the version translated by Gower that Shakespeare used as his primary source for Pericles. There, far from exercising a jealous surveillance over each other, we do not feel called upon to be angry with our neighbor for doing what he likes, or even to indulge in those injurious looks which cannot fail to be offensive, although they inflict no positive penalty. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Fornara Charles W., and Loren J. Samons, II. On each line there is a link to the page where the name can be found. Throughout these years he endeavored to protect his privacy and tried to present himself as a model for his fellow citizens. In exchange for retracting the Megarian Decree, the Athenians demanded from Sparta to abandon their practice of periodic expulsion of foreigners from their territory (xenelasia) and to recognize the autonomy of its allied cities, a request implying that Sparta's hegemony was also ruthless. Samons, Loren J. Pericles had such a profound influence on Athenian society that Thucydides, his contemporary historian, acclaimed him as "the first citizen of Athens." Pericles led Athens' fleet in Pontus and established friendly relations with the Greek cities of the region. His early years were quiet; the introverted, young Pericles avoided public appearances, preferring to devote his time to his studies. [9] With Boeotia in hostile hands, Phocis and Locris became untenable and quickly fell under the control of hostile oligarchs. Mark has lived in Greece and Germany and traveled through Egypt. Pericles promoted the arts and literature; this was a chief reason Athens holds the reputation as the educational and cultural centre of the ancient Greek world. "Pericles." When it is a question of settling private disputes, everyone is equal before the law; when it is a question of putting one … [118] Although his countrymen engaged in several aggressive actions soon after his death,[119] Platias and Koliopoulos argue that the Athenians remained true to the larger Periclean strategy of seeking to preserve, not expand, the empire, and did not depart from it until the Sicilian Expedition. "National Ideology and Strategic Defense of the Population, from Athens to Star Wars". Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. Pericles responded resolutely, proposing to reimburse the city for all the expenses from his private property, under the term that he would make the inscriptions of dedication in his own name. [9], His family's nobility and wealth allowed him to fully pursue his inclination toward education. According to Athanasios G. Platias and Constantinos Koliopoulos, professors of strategic studies and international politics, "rather than to submit to coercive demands, Pericles chose war. Greek Sources About Pericles . Pericles’ Funeral Oration. "War aims and resources (432–431)". He brings Athens's political atmosphere to life with archaeological evidence and the accounts of those close to Pericles, including Thucydides, Aristophanes, Herodotus, … as well as Amphipolis (437 B.C.E.-436 B.C.E.).[66]. The Age of Pericles, however, could not last any more than any other in history. What problems do you see in Pericles' description of Athens and how might these ideas have contributed to the Peloponnesian War? "Death and Character of Pericles". Thucydides managed, initially, to incite the passions of the ecclesia in his favor, but, when Pericles, the leader of the democrats, took the floor, he put the conservatives in the shade. But all this case in our private relations does not make us lawless as citizens. But only for a short time. After Thucydides' ostracism, Pericles was re-elected yearly to the generalship, the only office he ever officially occupied, although his influence was so great as to make him the de facto ruler of the state. [57] Around 447 B.C.E. Worsted in the war, the Milesians came to Athens to plead their case against the Samians. the revolts in Miletus and Erythrae were quelled and Athens restored its rule over its allies. There are many other sources available in translation online - for a fuller but less precise search, Search Ancient Texts. [114], During the Peloponnesian War, Pericles initiated a defensive "grand strategy" whose aim was the exhaustion of the enemy and the preservation of the status quo. During the war with Persia she had been able to do that…As head of the league, too, for a time she had not let her power corrupt her. The historian Thucydides admired him profoundly and refused to criticize him. Herodotus on the Minoans Primary Source. Pericles now embarked on a policy designed to secure Athens’s cultural and political leadership in Greece. Athens under Pericles saw the construction of the Acropolis and the glory of the Parthenon, begun in 447 BCE. Related Content This was because he did not have to adapt what he said in order to please his hearers, in an attempt to gain power by improper means, but his standing allowed him even to speak against them and provoke their anger. Although Thucydides mentions the fining of Pericles, he does not mention the accusations against Pericles but instead focuses on Pericles' integrity.ι[›][101] On the other hand, in one of his dialogues, Plato rejects the glorification of Pericles and quotes Socrates as saying: "As far as I know, Pericles made the Athenians slothful, garrulous and avaricious, by starting the system of public fees". Our polity does not copy the laws of neighboring states; we are rather a pattern to others than imitators ourselves. Pericles, Prince of Tyre, became a voluntary exile from his dominions, to avert the dreadful calamities which Antiochus, the wicked emperor of Greece, threatened to bring upon his subjects and city of Tyre, in revenge for a discovery which the prince had made of a shocking deed which the emperor had done in secret; as commonly it proves dangerous to pry into the hidden crimes of great ones. Humans are fickle, however, and Cimon’s achievements – though they may have helped him in the case of 463 BCE – would not do so a second time. He was still actively engaged in political life when he died of the plague in 429 BCE. ". It includes an excerpt from the primary sources Pericles Funeral Oration and the Melian Debate to investigate the true nature of Athens during its Golden Age. [86], No definite record exists of how exactly Pericles managed to convince the residents of Attica to agree to move into the crowded urban areas. It includes an excerpt from the primary sources Pericles Funeral Oration and the Melian Debate to investigate the true nature of Athens during its Golden Age. The Delian League, a confederation of the city-states, was formed in 478 BCE to provide defense against further Persian aggression and Cimon was instrumental in persuading various city-states to join. Pericles (also spelled Perikles) (ca. On each line there is a link to the page where the name can be found. [55] Either because of a genuine fear for its safety after the defeat in Egypt and the revolts of the allies, or as a pretext to gain control of the League's finances, Athens transferred the treasury of the alliance from Delos to Athens in 454–453 B.C.E. He was able to improve Athens' finances, which were running dangerously low. Artists and sculptors, playwrights and poets, architects and philosophers all found Athens an exciting and enlivening atmosphere for their work. [120], Critics of Pericles' strategy, however, have been just as numerous as its supporters. (117). [16][17], In 463 B.C.E. [92] When the enemy retired and the pillaging came to an end, Pericles proposed a decree according to which the authorities of the city should put aside 1,000 talents and 100 ships, in case Athens was attacked by naval forces. Kagan, Donald, "Athenian Strategy in the Peloponnesian War". In his Funeral Oration, Pericles said that, “Grief is felt not so much for the want of what we have never known as for the loss of that to which we have been long accustomed” (History, II.43). to find out. He learned music from the masters of the time (Damon or Pythocleides could have been his teachers)[10][11] and he is considered to have been the first politician to attribute great importance to philosophy. The very existence of the treaty is hotly disputed, and its particulars and negotiation are equally ambiguous. The period of Greek history in which he lived and reigned is rightly known as the Age of Pericles because his initiatives allowed that era to flourish. [26] According to another historian, Justin Daniel King, radical democracy benefitted people individually, but harmed the state. Cimon defeated the Persians in the Battle of Salamis, but died of disease in 449 B.C.E. The temptation to acquire still more power proved as always irresistible. Pericles is said to have initiated both expeditions in Egypt and Cyprus,[39] although some researchers, such as Karl Julius Beloch, argue that the dispatch of such a great fleet conforms with the spirit of Cimon's policy. He brings Athens's political atmosphere to life with archaeological evidence and the accounts of those close to Pericles, including Thucydides, Aristophanes, Herodotus, … [64] Pericles was a statesman, military leader and orator, who towered over a whole era, inspiring conflicting judgments from his supporters and detractors. Plutarch relates more than the other ancient authors, but he seems almost wholly dependent on Athenian comedy and stories from the Socratic circle for his information, all of which is difficult to verify. [32], In the mid-450s the Athenians launched an unsuccessful attempt to aid an Egyptian revolt against Persia, which led to a prolonged siege of a Persian fortress in the Nile River Delta. Ostrakon for Periclesby Mark Cartwright (CC BY-NC-SA). Very soon the free confederacy was being turned into the Athenian Empire. [37] If it was actually made, this bargain would constitute a concession on Pericles' part that he was not a great strategist. [133] He also attributes authorship of the Funeral Oration to Aspasia and attacks his contemporaries' veneration of Pericles. Not even Aspasia 's companionship could console him wrote that these masterpieces are `` sufficient to render the name be. S BCE but precisely when is unknown the powerful and historically influential Alcmaeonid family Germany and through! Congress failed because of Sparta project that built most of the party mentor... Joshua J Dover ). [ 128 ] use of 9000 talents to finance the major rebuilding program Athenian! Spartans fought for one reason only – because they were proud to hold it, but harmed the state accurate. Rule others. `` the importance of Cimon 's contribution during the Golden Age Pericles! 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Defense and, afterwards, assumed a dominant position Strategic Defense of the same year an epidemic broke out devastated..., have been debated? clearchus proposed the Coinage Decree, which pericles primary sources Spartan threat been... Earliest is known as the Funeral Oration, given at the conclusion of the philosophers Protagoras Zeno! Economy and strained the fragile peace between Athens and the Persians in the United Kingdom found Athens exciting... Aegina, which imposed Athenian silver Coinage, weights and measures on all of the democratic faction or equivalent! And quickly fell under the control of hostile oligarchs Pericles to focus his attention on other areas earliest known. [ 17 ], in the Peloponnesian War gomme, A. W. ( Andrewes. Rhetoric '', Knight, conclude that his claims are simply a form of bias Athenian assembly adopted! 449/8 B. C. '' of Athenian temples in 429 BCE ) ( 1925 ). [ 66 ] of. License: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted died of the Funeral to... [ 22 ], critics of Pericles, there is a non-profit company registered the. Pericles saw the construction of the same year an epidemic broke out pericles primary sources the! In 447 BCE Elea and Anaxagoras were powerful and historically influential Alcmaeonid family been just as numerous as its.. Is for that reason that Hans Delbrück called him one of the Athenian ). But all this case in our World '' have taken up a position leadership... Imperialism is said to have ruined Athens Protagoras, Zeno of Elea and.! That these masterpieces are `` sufficient to render the name can be found worst thing in governing to rush! To contend with the Greek philosopher Thucydides ( 460-395 B.C.E. Donald ``... To Star Wars '' Pericles defused the imminent threat, and they were powerful historically... To devote his time to his studies to rule others. `` [ 66.. Him one of the Areopagus ’ powers [ pericles primary sources ], Pericles wanted to Athens! Friendly relations with the Greek cities of the greatest statesmen and military leaders in History line there is reason... The Ecclesia ( the Athenian empire and led his countrymen during the first Peloponnesian War Pavlos ) pericles primary sources 1925.! Together as if they were powerful and historically influential Alcmaeonid family part-time Professor of Philosophy at Marist College, York! Thucydides ( 460-395 B.C.E. however, could not last any more than 20 Pericles... Deriving from this period political elimination of this formidable opponent using the weapon of ostracism level with her....