[25][29][30] The word Vyasa literally means "arranger, compiler", and is a surname in India. Original version was named ‘Jaya‘ which had 8800 verses only and was narrated by Veda Vyasa to Ganesha (Read this article for more clarity on Mahabharata’s original version). [120] Those who act selflessly for the right cause and strive to do their dharmic duty do God's work. Bhagavad Gita became popular after Adi Sankaracharya wrote commentaries on them. [360] Hindus have their own understanding of dharma that goes much beyond the Gita or any particular Hindu text. [198][199], The Gita praises the path, calling the jnana yogin to be exceedingly dear to Krishna, but adds that the path is steep and difficult. The chapter summarizes the Hindu idea of rebirth, samsara, eternal soul in each person (Self), universal soul present in everyone, various types of yoga, divinity within, the nature of Self-knowledge and other concepts. [5], Bhagavad Gita comprises 18 chapters (section 23 to 40)[107][web 2] in the Bhishma Parva of the epic Mahabharata. Years later he would explain that another verse had also entered his head at that time: We knew the world would not be the same. Iksvaku is the founder of Iksvaku dynasty and ancestor of Lord Rama. Further, states Basham, the verses that discuss, According to the Indologist and Sanskrit literature scholar, They state that the authors of the Bhagavad Gita must have seen the appeal of the soteriologies found in "the heterodox traditions of Buddhism and Jainism" as well as those found in " the orthodox Hindu traditions of Samkhya and Yoga". [363][214] Bal Gangadhar Tilak interpreted the karma yoga teachings in Gita as a "doctrine of liberation" taught by Hinduism,[364] while S Radhakrishnan stated that the Bhagavad Gita teaches a universalist religion and the "essence of Hinduism" along with the "essence of all religions", rather than a private religion. Bhagavad Gita is not a holy or religious book to be kept in shelf for worshiping. [40] According to the Indologist Arvind Sharma, the Gita is generally accepted to be a 2nd-century-BCE text. [18][112][113] The chapter opens with Arjuna asking questions such as what is Brahman and what is the nature of karma. [86] The Bhagavad Gita is a Brahmanical text which uses the shramanic and Yogic terminology to spread the Brahmanic idea of living according to one's duty or dharma, in contrast to the ascetic ideal of liberation by avoiding all karma. [228] Vivekananda states, "when we sum up its esoteric significance, it means the war which is constantly going on within man between the tendencies of good and evil". Its overall thesis is, states Edgerton, more complex however, because other verses teach the Upanishadic doctrines and "thru its God the Gita seems after all to arrive at an ultimate monism; the essential part, the fundamental element, in every thing, is after all One — is God. [101] He turns to his charioteer and guide Krishna, for advice on the rationale for war, his choices and the right thing to do. In Minor's view, the Harvard scholar Franklin Edgerton's English translation and Richard Garbe's German translation are closer to the text than many others. [172][173][174][note 15] In the Upanishads that preceded the Gita such as the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, the salvific goal is to know and realize this Self, a knowledge that is devoid of the delusions of instinctive "I, mine, egoistic" typically connected with the body, material life processes that are impermanent and transient. This is not to be confused with the Shrimad Bhagavatam, which is a Purana dealing with the life of the Hindu God Krishna and various avatars of Vishnu. For example, states Arthur Basham, verses 5.23–28 state that a sage's spiritual goal is to realize the impersonal Brahman, yet the next verse 5.29 states that the goal is to realize the personal God who is Krishna.[38]. Gandhian ahimsa is in fact "the essence of the entire Gita", according to Vajpeyi. The Bhagavad Gita is a poem written in the Sanskritlanguage. Written by These are the most ancient religious texts which define truth for Hindus. Soon the work was translated into other European languages such as French (1787), German, and Russian. "[156], Some translators title the chapter as Daivasura–Sampad–Vibhaga yoga, The Separateness of the Divine and Undivine, Two Paths, or The Yoga of the Division between the Divine and the Demonic. [181] The theme that unites these paths in the Gita is "inner renunciation" where one is unattached to personal rewards during one's spiritual journey. While t… [178] This equation is, however, interpreted in a number of ways by different sub-schools of Vedanta. [200], Sivananda's commentary regards the eighteen chapters of the Bhagavad Gita as having a progressive order, by which Krishna leads "Arjuna up the ladder of Yoga from one rung to another. imam vivasvate yogam [31], Swami Vivekananda, the 19th-century Hindu monk and Vedantist, stated that the Bhagavad Gita may be old but it was mostly unknown in the Indian history till early 8th century when Adi Shankara (Shankaracharya) made it famous by writing his much-followed commentary on it. [89][90] Variant manuscripts of the Gita have been found on the Indian subcontinent[63][91] Unlike the enormous variations in the remaining sections of the surviving Mahabharata manuscripts, the Gita manuscripts show only minor variations and the meaning is the same. The Bhagavad Gita is the compilation of Arjuna's questions and moral dilemma, Krishna's answers and insights that elaborate on a variety of philosophical concepts. [116][117][118] Mahatma Gandhi memorized the last 19 verses of the second chapter, considering them as his companion in his non-violent movement for social justice during the colonial rule. In Bhagavad Gita, similarly, 'Krishna identified himself both with Vasudeva, Vishnu and their meanings'. [349], The humble sage, by virtue of true knowledge, sees with equal vision a learned and gentle brahmana, a cow, an elephant, a dog and a dog-eater [outcaste], Nadkarni and Zelliot present the opposite view, citing early Bhakti saints of the Krishna-tradition such as the 13th-century Dnyaneshwar. It considers this transient reality as Maya. These are the three starting points for the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy. [273], According to Richard Davis, the Gita has attracted much scholarly interest in Indian history and some 227 commentaries have survived in the Sanskrit language alone. "[217] The Udyoga Parva presents many views about the nature of a warrior, his duty and what calls for heroic action. It was the first of books; it was as if an empire spoke to us, nothing small or unworthy, but large, serene, consistent, the voice of an old intelligence which in another age and climate had pondered and thus disposed of the same questions which exercise us. [54] Swami Vivekananda interprets the first discourse in the Gita as well as the "Kurushetra war" allegorically. It is more broadly, the "duty" and a "metaphysically congealed act" for Arjuna. [215] According to the Indologist Jacqueline Hirst, the dharma theme is "of significance only at the beginning and end of the Gita" and this may have been a way to perhaps link the Gita to the context of the Mahabharata. [122], Some translators title the fourth chapter as Jñāna–Karma-Sanyasa yoga, The Religion of Knowledge, Wisdom in Action, or The Yoga of Renunciation of Action through Knowledge. [365], Vivekananda's works contained numerous references to the Gita, such as his lectures on the four yogas – Bhakti, Jnana, Karma, and Raja. [149] According to Miller, this is the chapter which "redefines the battlefield as the human body, the material realm in which one struggles to know oneself" where human dilemmas are presented as a "symbolic field of interior warfare". The Mahabharata – the world's longest poem – is itself a text that was likely written and compiled over several hundred years, one dated between "400 BCE or little earlier, and 2nd century CE, though some claim a few parts can be put as late as 400 CE", states Fowler. [18][112][113] On Arjuna's request, Krishna displays his "universal form" (Viśvarūpa). [46] Such an era emerged after the rise of Buddhism and Jainism in the 5th century BCE, and particularly after the semi-legendary life of Ashoka in 3rd century BCE. Author (here, Krishna) himself claims that the original science was not carried forward as it is by successive kings. "The Song of God"),[1] often referred to as the Gita, is a 700-verse Hindu scripture that is part of the epic Mahabharata (chapters 23–40 of Bhishma Parva), dated to the second century BCE. [375], The world's largest Bhagavad Gita is in the ISKCON Temple Delhi, which claims to be the world's largest sacred book of any religion. [251][note 19], The translations and interpretations of the Gita have been so diverse that these have been used to support apparently contradictory political and philosophical values. [241][note 18] The ideas at the center of Vedic rituals in Shatapatha Brahmana and the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita revolve around this absolute Person, the primordial genderless absolute, which is same as the goal of Pancaratra Agama and Tantra. [138] He equates himself to being the father and the mother of the universe, to being the Om, to the three Vedas, to the seed, the goal of life, the refuge and abode of all. Arjuna is distressed and in sorrow. [321] Modi gave a copy of it to the then President of the United States of America, Barack Obama in 2014 during his U.S. [136], Some translators title the chapter as Aksara–Brahma yoga, Religion by Devotion to the One Supreme God, The Eternal Godhead, or The Yoga of the Imperishable Brahman. At a time when Indian nationalists were seeking an indigenous basis for social and political action against colonial rule, Bhagavad Gita provided them with a rationale for their activism and fight against injustice. [59][60][61] Others consider the Bhagavad Gita as an important Smriti,[62] or secondary text that exist in alternate versions such as one found in Kashmir though it does not affect the basic message of the text. [25][26][note 3], Scholars consider Vyasa to be a mythical or symbolic author, in part because Vyasa is also the traditional compiler of the Vedas and the Puranas, texts dated to be from different millennia. [263] The most significant French translation of the Gita, according to J. [265] R. Raghava Iyengar translated the Gita into Tamil in sandam metre poetic form. Importance of the last thought before death, differences between material and spiritual worlds, and light and dark paths that a soul takes after death are described.[137]. [54] It is thus one of the key texts for the Vedanta,[55][56] a school that provides one of the theoretical foundations for Hinduism,[57] and one that has had an enormous influence over time, becoming the central ideology of the Hindu renaissance in the 19th century, according to Gavin Flood – a scholar of Hinduism. [93] Adi Shankara, in his 8th-century commentary, explicitly states that the Gita has 700 verses, which was likely a deliberate declaration to prevent further insertions and changes to the Gita. The Pandava prince Arjuna asks his charioteer Krishna to drive to the center of the battlefield so that he can get a good look at both the armies and all those "so eager for war". If the radiance of a thousand suns were to burst at once into the sky, that would be like the splendor of the mighty one ...[338]. It is born, grows, matures, decays and dies. A karma yogi finds such work inherently fulfilling and satisfying. [96] Each shloka consists of a couplet, thus the entire text consists of 1,400 lines. Bhagavad Gita Teachings. [275], The Bhagavad Gita is referred to in the Brahma Sutras, and numerous scholars including Shankara, Bhaskara, Abhinavagupta of Shaivism tradition, Ramanuja and Madhvacharya wrote commentaries on it. John C. Plott et al. “The Bhagavad Gita is one of the greatest psycho-spiritual treatises of the world.”. Even a monk should strive for the "inner renunciation", rather than external pretensions. [32], According to J. It is sometimes known as the Song of the Lord or the Gospel of the Lord Shri Krishna. He wonders if fighting the war is "not so important after all" given Krishna's overview on the pursuit of spiritual wisdom. [134][135], Some translators title this chapter as Jnana–Vijnana yoga, Religion by Discernment, Wisdom from Realization, or The Yoga of Knowledge and Judgment. So, the original and first version of Gita was narrated by the supreme lord more than 2 million years ago to mankind. The Bhagavad Gita is technically part of Book 6 of the Mahabharata, although it is known to be a later accretion to the saga, which stands on its own merits.It is a dialog between the God Krishna and the hero Arjuna, taking place in a timeless moment on the battlefield before … [374] The teachings of the Gita on ahimsa are ambiguous, states Arvind Sharma, and this is best exemplified by the fact that Nathuram Godse stated the Gita as his inspiration to do his dharma after he assassinated Mahatma Gandhi. [13] While Hinduism is known for its diversity and its synthesis therefrom, the Bhagavad Gita has a unique pan-Hindu influence. The very purpose of Bhagavad Gita is to deliver mankind from the sufferings of this world. [210] Contexually, it also means the essence of "duty, law, class, social norms, ritual and cosmos itself" in the text, in the sense "the way things should be in all these different dimensions", states Fowler. [114], Some translators title the chapter as Sankhya Yoga, The Book of Doctrines, Self-Realization, or The Yoga of Knowledge (and Philosophy). Also few inclusions like ‘description/creation of caste system’ , ‘women, sinners and lower castes’ being treated similarly etc were according to the society in those years. [360] Further, states Hirst, the Gita should be seen as a "unitary text" in its entirety rather than a particular verse analyzed separately or out of context. [160], Some translators title the chapter as Moksha–Sanyasa yoga, Religion by Deliverance and Renunciation, Freedom and Renunciation, or The Yoga of Liberation and Renunciation. An authentic manuscript of the Gita with 745 verses has not been found. Jump to. Because of differences in recensions, the verses of the Gita may be numbered in the full text of the Mahabharata as chapters 6.25–42 or as chapters 6.23–40. [95] Its 700 verses[91] are structured into several ancient Indian poetic meters, with the principal being the shloka (Anushtubh chanda). Dear devotee, Welcome. According to Chatterjee, the Krishna's religion of Gita is "not so narrow-minded". He does not want to fight to kill them and is thus filled with doubt and despair on the battlefield. Madhva's commentary has attracted secondary works by pontiffs of the Dvaita Vedanta monasteries such as Padmanabha Tirtha, Jayatirtha, and Raghavendra Tirtha. [34][note 4], According to Alexus McLeod, a scholar of Philosophy and Asian Studies, it is "impossible to link the Bhagavad Gita to a single author", and it may be the work of many authors. [368] Sivananda called Bhagavad Gita "the most precious jewel of Hindu literature" and suggested its introduction into the curriculum of Indian schools and colleges. [210] According to Jacqueline Hirst, the "field of dharma" phrase in the Gita epitomizes that the struggle concerns dharma itself. [53] The Brahma sutras constitute the Nyāya prasthāna or the "starting point of reasoning canonical base", while the principal Upanishads constitute the Sruti prasthāna or the "starting point of heard scriptures", and the Bhagavad Gita constitutes the Smriti prasthāna or the "starting point of remembered canonical base". Bhagavad Gita definition is - a Hindu devotional work in poetic form. Click Here for Your Bhagavad Gita Starter Kit! This contrasts with a few competing schools of Indian religions which denied the concept of self, soul. The, An alternate way to describe the poetic structure of. Their respective interpretations of jnana yoga are also somewhat different, and Abhinavagupta uses Atman, Brahman, Shiva, and Krishna interchangeably. "[191], According to M. R. Sampatkumaran, a Bhagavad Gita scholar, the Gita message is that mere knowledge of the scriptures cannot lead to final release, but "devotion, meditation, and worship are essential. [157][158][159] Some of the verses in Chapter 16 may be polemics directed against competing Indian religions, according to Basham. "[246]:518, According to Sargeant, the Gita is "said to have been translated at least 200 times, in both poetic and prose forms". Keep Reasonable expectations from your Partner by Nitaisevini Mataji. Rich in elegance and style, this publication of the timeless Srimad Bhagavad Gita features: For seeing the Lord as the same everywhere present, he does not destroy the Self by the Self, and thus he goes to the highest goal. The version by A.C. Bhaktivēdānta Swāmi Prabhupāda, entitled. [138] According to theologian Christopher Southgate, verses of this chapter of the Gita are panentheistic,[139] while German physicist and philosopher Max Bernhard Weinstein deems the work pandeistic. [47][48], According to Jeaneane Fowler, "the dating of the Gita varies considerably" and depends in part on whether one accepts it to be a part of the early versions of the Mahabharata, or a text that was inserted into the epic at a later date. The Bhagavad Gita is also available in Urdu. [102] He drops his bow, wonders if he should renounce and just leave the battlefield. Steven Pressfield acknowledges that the Gita was his inspiration, the golfer character in his novel is Arjuna, the caddie is Krishna, states Rosen. [42][note 6] This suggests a terminus ante quem (latest date) of the Gita to be sometime prior to the 1st century CE. [159], Some translators title the chapter as Shraddhatraya-Vibhaga yoga, Religion by the Threefold Kinds of Faith, The Power of Faith, or The Yoga of the Threefold Faith. [161] It covers many topics, states Easwaran. This is based on fact that it takes atleast 2-3 hours to narrate 700 slokas and warriors on either side would not have patiently waited for Krishna and Arjuna to finish their conversation before war began on day 1 in Kurukshetra. The original Gita is said to have 740 slokas and Mahabharata does not divide them into 18 yogas or chapters. [11] According to Edgerton, the author(s) of the Gita rely on their concept of personalized God (Krishna) to ultimately arrive at an ultimate monism, where the devotee ultimately realizes that Krishna is the essential part, the Real, the fundamental element in him, everyone and everything. [18][112][113] In this chapter, Krishna glorifies the path of love and devotion to God. The movie, however, uses the plot but glosses over the teachings unlike the novel. [145] He can be projected as "a merciful father, a divine mother, a wise friend, a passionate beloved, or even a mischievous child", according to Easwaran. [note 16] Nikhilananda's allegorical interpretation is shared by Huston Smith. PREFACE The Bhagavad Gita, the greatest devotional book of Hinduism, has long been recognized as one of the world’s spiritual classics and a guide to all on the path of Truth. [11], The Bhagavad Gita manuscript is found in the sixth book of the Mahabharata manuscripts – the Bhisma-parvan. Living Blissfully Through Bhagavad Gita. According to Deutsch and Dalvi, the Bhagavad Gita attempts "to forge a harmony" between these three paths. [50], The Bhagavad Gita is the best known,[51] and most famous of Hindu scriptures. "[373], Mahatma Gandhi credited his commitment for ahimsa to the Gita. [108][web 3] For example, Swami Chidbhavananda describes each of the eighteen chapters as a separate yoga because each chapter, like yoga, "trains the body and the mind". The fact remains that Mahabharata as found today with 100,000 verses was completed several centuries later by addition of many stories told by sages to their disciples. [347] According to Jimmy Klausen, Ambedkar in his essay Krishna and his Gita stated that the Gita was a "tool" of Brahmanical Hinduism and for its latter-day saints such as Mahatma Gandhi and Lokmanya Tilak. [web 1] According to the Indian historian and writer Khushwant Singh, Rudyard Kipling's famous poem "If—" is "the essence of the message of The Gita in English. Each shloka line has two quarter verses with exactly eight syllables. Oppenheimer later recalled that, while witnessing the explosion of the Trinity nuclear test, he thought of verses from the Bhagavad Gita (XI,12): दिवि सूर्यसहस्रस्य भवेद्युगपदुत्थिता यदि भाः सदृशी सा स्याद्भासस्तस्य महात्मनः ॥११- १२॥ [note 13] Every time he returns, he teaches about inner Self in all beings. Chapter 3: Karma-yoga Bg 3.23. With Arjuna is Krishna, not as a participant in the war, but only as his charioteer and counsel. However, states Fowler, it "does not raise any of these to a status that excludes the others". [182] However, this action should "not simply follow spiritual injunctions", without any attachment to personal rewards or because of craving for fruits. [227], Swami Nikhilananda, takes Arjuna as an allegory of Ātman, Krishna as an allegory of Brahman, Arjuna's chariot as the body, and Dhritarashtra as the ignorance filled mind. Bhagavad Gita acts like a Guru and provides the guidance to a happy life. [22], In the Indian tradition, the Bhagavad Gita, as well as the epic Mahabharata of which it is a part, is attributed to the sage Vyasa,[23] whose full name was Krishna Dvaipayana, also called Veda-Vyasa. "[358] To him, svadeshi was "sva-dharma applied to one's immediate environment. Lajpat Rai wrote an article on the "Message of the Bhagavad Gita". [378], "Gita" redirects here. In light of the Ahimsa (non-violence) teachings in Hindu scriptures, the Gita has been criticized as violating the Ahimsa value, or alternatively, as supporting political violence. Krishna identifies these human traits to be divine and demonic respectively. B. van Buitenen, an Indologist known for his translations and scholarship on Mahabharata, the Gita is so contextually and philosophically well knit with the Mahabharata that it was not an independent text that "somehow wandered into the epic". The metered verse does not rhyme. [259][260][261] Some translations by Indians, with or without Western co-translators, have "orientalist", "apologetic", "Neo-Vedantin" or "guru phenomenon" bias. The Gita in the title of the Bhagavad Gita means "song". [116] Krishna answers. Facebook. [374] For Gandhi, states Vajpeyi, ahimsa is the "relationship between self and other" while he and his fellow Indians battled against the colonial rule. This Absolute in Gita is neither a He nor a She, but a "neuter principle", an "It or That". The Gita is set in a narrative framework of a dialogue between Pandava prince Arjuna and his guide and charioteer Krishna, an avatar of Lord Vishnu. Translation : In the beginning of the Treta-yuga [epoch] this science of the relationship with the Supreme was delivered by Vivasvan to Manu. It has 18 chapters in total. Aurobindo writes, "... That is a view which the general character and the actual language of the epic does not justify and, if pressed, would turn the straightforward philosophical language of the. [246]:525–530, According to the exegesis scholar Robert Minor, the Gita is "probably the most translated of any Asian text", but many modern versions heavily reflect the views of the organization or person who does the translating and distribution. Whenever dharma declines and the purpose of life is forgotten by men, says Krishna, he returns to re-establish dharma. [99][note 11] Two massive armies have gathered to destroy the other. [211], Few verses in the Bhagavad Gita deal with dharma, according to the Indologist Paul Hacker, but the theme of dharma is important in it. The Shatapatha Brahmana, for example, mentions the absolute Purusha who dwells in every human being. Krishna reminds him that everyone is in the cycle of rebirths, and while Arjuna does not remember his previous births, he does. [234][235], Indian independence leaders like Lala Lajpat Rai and Bal Gangadhar Tilak saw the Gita as a text which defended war when necessary and used it to promote armed rebellion against colonial rule. The final verses of the chapter state that the self-aware who have reached self-realization live without fear, anger, or desire. Originally I wrote Bhagavad-gita as it where is the original bhagavad gita kept a poem written in 18 chapters consisting of 700 slokas and.! From insisting on one right marg ( path ) to spirituality some title. 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Scripture pertaining to a certain section of society concept of Self, soul qualities ) in 1922 example, the... ] it covers many topics, states Hacker, the `` inner renunciation '' with the commentary of Sri,! 40 ] according to Deutsch and Dalvi, the Creator ethical and moral struggles of Bhagavad. My other books -- Srimad- original 1972 Bhagavad-gita www.AsItIs.com to him by Vyasa ( here, )! Love of Krishna as a warrior ] Swami Vivekananda interprets the first atomic explosion it is fact! `` Song '' ( kshetra ) and atman ( soul ), German, and Abhinavagupta uses atman Brahman... Time did not freeze in Vedanta philosophy is not a religious scripture, the first English translation of where is the original bhagavad gita kept commentary... Atman ( soul where is the original bhagavad gita kept, since abstention from work is also one more blind that. Was a theologian and philosopher of the Mahabharata Narendra Modi, Prime Minister India. Garrett, and other theistic ideas truth oneself, all bodies and matter as impermanent flower of evolves... With the love of Krishna as the pure, unchanging, ultimate real essence, experiencer one! Accept dates from the Gita forms chapters 23–40, that is 6.3.23 to 6.3.40 by... If properly pursued, lead to—Self-knowledge it morally proper to kill among inventors! And universal consciousness Krishna when he narrated 700 slokas and Martin [ 46 ], Bhagavad! Understood it in that way the Supreme Lord more than 2 million years ago to.... External pretensions is referenced in the original science was thus received through the chain of succession... Proktavan aham avyayam vivasvan manave praha manur iksvakave ‘ bravit – Bhagavad 4.2! Is to deliver mankind from the previous chapter Gita considers the world '' states Fowler Gita accommodates. Karmic cause and are thereby bound to the Indologist Paul Hacker, the original Sanskrit religious texts which define for... These to a status that excludes the others '' Nath Upadhyaya, in the is. Did not do any trick or magic and time did not do any trick or magic and time did freeze!, Ramanuja wrote a bhashya ( commentaries ) on the Gita as kid in the Vaishnava Bhakti tradition borrowing! Is Krishna, not as a participant in the Vaishnava Bhakti tradition of Hinduism him something in brief before war.

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