Feminist film theory mostly began in two places. NeoFormalism is a push back towards looking at the very elements that make up a film and a rejection of the over-reliance on symbolism in modern theory. Film theory, theory developed to explain the nature of motion pictures and how they produce emotional and mental effects on the audience. Thus, in the academic world, Film Theory is a branch of Film Studies. Film theory is a set of scholarly approaches within the academic discipline of film or cinema studies that began in the 1920s by questioning the formal essential attributes of motion pictures; and that now provides conceptual frameworks for understanding film's relationship to reality, the other arts, individual viewers, and society at large. These theories are like lenses through which you can view film. Theorists began exploring the differences between the representation of digital technologies vs the indexical images of analogue celluloid. Film Theory addresses the core concepts and arguments created or used by academics, critical film theorists, and filmmakers, including the work of Dudley Andrew, Raymond Bellour, Mary Ann Doane, Miriam Hansen, bell hooks, Siegfried Kracauer, Raul Ruiz, P. Adams Sitney, Bernard Stiegler, and Pier Paolo Pasolini. Like Kuleshov, Eisenstein believed that editing was the essential aspect that set film apart. Sergei Eisenstein was a Soviet filmmaker and theorist heavily concerned with montage. All in all, Feminist Film Theory, Queer Theory, and many other branches of film theory were solidified during this era. She later became interested in the non-narrative movement known as Cinéma Pur. Marxist theory is based in influencing the viewer through realistic and unbiased structure. This is a small selection of notable theorists and is by no means comprehensive. On the whole, editing provides new context and meaning through juxtaposing images. Plus, we’ll provide an overview of a few major film theorists and their thoughts. There are a wide variety of film theories. She then went on to co-write and co-direct several films, including the experimental Riddles of the Sphinx. François Truffaut was a French critic, theorist, and filmmaker known for proposing the basis of the Auteur Theory. Thus, formalists are concerned about how these elements work (or do not work) to create impact on the viewer. Film theory is a set of scholarly approaches within the academic discipline of film or cinema studies that began in the 1920s by questioning the formal essential attributes of motion pictures;[1] and that now provides conceptual frameworks for understanding film's relationship to reality, the other arts, individual viewers, and society at large. All the latest video techniques and gear reviews, sent straight to your inbox. Sight and Sound ranked Man with a Movie Camera as the 8th best film ever made. During the 1990s the digital revolution in image technologies has influenced film theory in various ways. Film theory involves looking at the film, individually or multiple films in a group, and analyzing how those films are connected to each other, to the group, to the audience, and to real life Discuss two reasons why people are interested in looking at the connections between films, films and … As the audience watched them talk, they wouldn’t know the bomb was there and when it exploded, it would surprise them. Usually, it also looks at how film affects/is affected by the individual viewer as well as society as a whole. That is, a true auteur has distinctive characteristics that mark their work, regardless of other influences on the project. Each volume deals with a single theory and a single film, with the aim of providing a discrete example of how film theory … Here’s what you need to know. But what if the audience knew … The first is thatfilm scholars who are not professional philosophers have made manycontributions to the field. His work also led to the theory of creative geography. As such, it is related to Literary Theory and Semiotics. Ettinger's notions articulate the links between aesthetics, ethics and trauma. Although some branches of film theory are derived from linguistics and literary theory,[3] it also originated and overlaps with the philosophy of film.[4]. In this framework, men are active participants in the world and women are objects that matter only so far as their relationship to men. Consequently, it also allows a film to manipulate the viewers’ understanding of space and time. Lights, Camera, Action. This perspective holds that although others, such as the screenwriter and the cinematographer, are major creative forces, the director has final authority. Queer Theory subverts traditional institutions of society that are based on the heteronormative model of human sexuality, and acknowledges the broad spectrum of sexuality, sexual orientation, and gender identity. Understanding film theory allows viewers to find new levels of meaning within film. For filmmakers, theory allows us to better-hone our tools to create emotional and dramatic impacts on our audiences. Dulac started out as an Impressionist, and her film La Coquille et le Clergyman has been regarded as the first Surrealist film. Germaine Dulac was an early French filmmaker and film theorist. With the advancements in film throughout the years feminist film theory has developed and changed to analyse the current ways of film and also go back to analyse films past. Introduction. Click here to contact a sales representative and request a media kit. NeoFormalism also points out that art is not simply symbolism because, art often asks the viewer to look at familiar objects and concepts through new lenses. Film Theory The simplest conceptualization of the gas-liquid transfer process is attributed to Nernst (1904). What is Film Theory? It focuses on the relationship of the filmmaker to the film, and the relationship of the film to the audience. Thus, in the academic world, Film Theory is a branch of Film Studies. See also auteur theory. Nernst postulated that near the interface there exists a stagnant film . The theory argues that a film is ultimately a reflection of the director’s vision; so, a film by a given filmmaker will feature recognizable, recurring themes and visual tropes that allow a viewer to observe a consistent artistic identity throughout the director’s body of work. He uses the derogatory term "SLAB theory" to refer to film studies based on the ideas of Ferdinand de Saussure, Jacques Lacan, Louis Althusser, and Roland Barthes. (See, for example, Chatman (1990)and Smith (1995).) Following are a few of the most helpful theoretical methods used in film studies: Auteur theory: The idea that the director is the single misunderstood artistic genius responsible for creating a […] what is Feminist film Theory? Bergson commented on the need for new ways of thinking about movement, and coined the terms "the movement-image" and "the time-image". However, in his 1906 essay L'illusion cinématographique (in L'évolution créatrice; English: The cinematic illusion) he rejects film as an example of what he had in mind. See synonyms for film theory noun The field of study concerned with the evaluation and analysis of films, often incorporating concepts from other disciplines, such as philosophy, politics, literary theory… The 1990s brought the digital revolution. Partner with us to reach an enthusiastic audience of students, enthusiasts and professional videographers and filmmakers. He was talking to famed director and film theory pioneer, François Truffaut, in front of an audience and he told Truffautto pretend there was a bomb under the table. He believed that the camera acted as a second eye, and through editing, actual footage of real-life could unlock deeply hidden truths about society. Marxism, Semiotics, Narratology: Film School Isn't What It Used to Be, One Father Discovers, "David Bordwell Blows the Whistle on Film Studies", "Critical Cinema: Beyond the Theory of Practice", Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, New Review of Film and Television Studies, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Film_theory&oldid=997312670, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 30 December 2020, at 23:14. With this, Marxist filmmakers use jump cuts and jarring edits to avoid suspension of disbelief within their audience. Auteur Theory promotes the idea that the director ultimately is the author (auteur) of a film. She called for a new female avant-garde film movement to counter the patriarchy of classic Hollywood Cinema. In the years after World War II, the French film critic and theorist André Bazin reacted against this approach to the cinema, arguing that film's essence lay in its ability to mechanically reproduce reality, not in its difference from reality. It was a series of choices that had artistic relevance in the terms of choices that could be made in shots and other film aspects. "What is Film Theory?" [2] Film theory is not to be confused with general film criticism, or film history, though these three disciplines interrelate. Gledhill, Christine; and Linda Williams, editors. Film theory is a scholarly pursuit, which attempts to explain the essence of what film is. Nonetheless, decades later, in Cinéma I and Cinema II (1983–1985), the philosopher Gilles Deleuze took Matter and Memory as the basis of his philosophy of film and revisited Bergson's concepts, combining them with the semiotics of Charles Sanders Peirce. As technologies have progressed, contemporary film theory now looks at where and how we encounter cinema. He holds a BA in Film Production from CSU Sacramento, a grad certificate in Screenwriting from UCLA, and is currently an MFA candidate at the USC School of Cinematic Arts. French philosopher Henri Bergson's Matter and Memory (1896) anticipated the development of film theory during the birth of cinema in the early twentieth century. Feminist Film Theory examines the relationship between women and film. To summarize, some theories contradict each other, while others work together. Theory. outlines the discipline's key theoretical concepts, perspectives, and traditions, and critically examines the assertions posited by exemplary film theorists and philosophers of film. Rudolph Arnheim's film theory "Film as Art" Arnheim believed that film was not just a mechanical representation of life. Auteur theory is a lens for looking at cinema that posits that the director is the “author” of a film. His film Man with a Movie Camera is a classic of documentary filmmaking. Structuralism focuses on recurring themes as well as the use of signs, symbols, and conventions to interpret film. [19] There has also been a historical revisiting of early cinema screenings, practices and spectatorship modes by writers Tom Gunning, Miriam Hansen and Yuri Tsivian. The first, beginning in the late 1960s and early 1970s, focused on a formal critique of cinema’s dissemination of ideology, and especially on the role of the cinematic apparatus in this process. Literary Theory and Criticism English Literature, Literary Theory and Criticism, Linguistics, Film Theory, Ebooks, UGC NET JRF Preparation, Novel Analysis, Scholarly Articles Nasrullah Mambrol While physicists often write about thephilosophy of science, the academic discipline of the philosophy ofphysics is dominated by professional philosophers… Much of this early theory emphasized film as different than reality. American scholar David Bordwell has spoken against many prominent developments in film theory since the 1970s. Apparatus Theory states that film is unavoidably ideological in nature. ... One notable exception is the film The Maltese Falcon (1941). In the USA, the theory was based on sociological theory, with a focus on the function of female characters within the narratives/genres of films. Simply put, formalism focuses heavily on how the style of a production communicates an intended message. The simple mechanics of representation — what is shot and what is cut — intertwine with the filmmakers individual point of view. This resulted in the New Wave, Cinema Vérité, and renewed interest in experimental and avant-garde films. More specifically, considering that films direct our attention to important narrative information. Videomaker is always looking for talented, qualified writers. It is suitable for students from any discipline but is particularly aimed at students studying film and literature as it examines issues common to both subjects such as realism, illusionism, narration, point of view, style, semiotics, psychoanalysis and multiculturalism. Film theory first began when filmmakers were first trying to understand their medium. He deeply examined the power of placing juxtaposing shots together to create an idea or feeling in his audience that was greater than either image would have alone. His 1925 film Battleship Potemkin received acclaim worldwide and is still used in film schools to show the power of montage. As formalist theory in film progressed in the 1980s concepts of Russian formalist films were taken to create Neo-formalism. A step-by-step approach to these issues guides the reader through the central topics of film theory. It examines and questions depictions of people whose sexual and gender identities have been historically marginalized. His debut film, The 400 Blows, won him the Best Director award at the Cannes Film Festival. You have entered an incorrect email address! Film theory is a framework to understand what films mean and how they relate to life. His theories of editing are still taught today as ‘The Kuleshov Effect’. Plus, in the 1960s, film theory became heavily influenced by semiotics, psychoanalysis, gender studies and Marxism. Mulvey brought the concept of ‘the male gaze’ to the forefront of feminist theory in her 1973 essay, Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. Feminist film theory has emerged in the past 20 years to become a large and flourishing field. Marxist Film Theory is primarily concerned with the production of film. Bracha Ettinger is an Isreali-born, contemporary French film theorist. New theories explore spectatorship and the collective experience of cinema. The Film Theorists or Film Theory is a spin-off channel of The Game Theorists.It is similar to The Game Theorists in concept but focuses on television and film rather than video game content. In short, it both reflects and provides commentary on the society it came from. outlines the discipline's key theoretical concepts, perspectives, and traditions, and critically examines the assertions posited by exemplary film theorists and philosophers of film. Think of a closeup, or a POV shot. All orders are custom made and most ship worldwide within 24 hours. This holds that creating a film is inherently a political act — either reinforcing or subverting the dominant cultural paradigm. In film, camera placement can give new dramatic impact impossible in theatre. High quality Film Theory gifts and merchandise. In short, it both reflects and provides commentary on the society it came from. This book is a lively and provoking introduction to film theory. "Philosophy of Film" by Thomas Wartenberg – first published 2004; substantive revision m 2008. Additionally, after WWII there was a shift in film theory towards the uniqueness of film to perfectly capture and record reality. You can find film theorists among the ranks of filmmakers, critics and philosophers. Despite the fact that the Marxist Film Theory, being the oldest body of film theories, the Marxist ideas and ideals is dubbed as like a bane to the enterprise mandated by the cinema trade of the United States of America, however, the standpoint of Marxist Film Theory materializes itself in a myriad of American motion pictures. Bazin argued that what made cinema its own art form was its ability to capture reality. Film theory is an academic discipline that aims to explore the essence of the cinema and provides conceptual frameworks for understanding film's relationship to reality, the other arts, individual viewers, and society at large. Neoformalists take into account to the cognitive effect of film on the viewer. In Critical Cinema: Beyond the Theory of Practice (2011), Clive Meyer suggests that 'cinema is a different experience to watching a film at home or in an art gallery', and argues for film theorists to re-engage the specificity of philosophical concepts for cinema as a medium distinct from others.[20]. 5 Famous directors and what we can learn from them, Why Kathryn Bigelow is a trailblazing director, The ins and outs of being a video producer, How to create funny videos to make your audience laugh, Here’s why Quentin Tarantino is the filmmaker’s filmmaker, What’s Your Story: Developing the Story in Documentary. There are two features of the philosophy of film that need to bediscussed before delving into more specific issues. He was a proponent of documentary and Italian Neo-realism and was a founder and long-time editor of Cahiers Du Cinéma. He was a particularly harsh critic. By comparing patterns and relationships of the structure within a single film, and between several films, we can better understand meaning. Erik Fritts has worked in media production for CBS, The US Fish and Wildlife Service, Berkshire Hathaway, and more. Sometimes, that means relying on an inexperienced cast and crew to complete your project. He often made his films in public places with secret hidden cameras. Truffaut is known as one of the founders of the French New Wave movement. [9] Instead, Bordwell promotes what he describes as "neoformalism" (a revival of formalist film theory). Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. What is the male gaze? Thus, filmmakers wanted to understand what was different about movies. On the whole, this article will give a brief understanding of the history of film theory and some of the major schools of thought within film theory. When you’re working on a tight budget, you have to take the help that you can get. It largely evolved from the works of directors like Germaine Dulac, Louis Delluc, Jean Epstein, Sergei Eisenstein, Lev Kuleshov, and Dziga Vertov and film theorists like Rudolf Arnheim, Béla Balázs and Siegfried Kracauer. Structuralist Film Theory states that there is a basic underlying structure to film. Plus, they examine how public screenings have different effects than viewing films alone. From a psychoanalytical perspective, after the Lacanian notion of "the Real", Slavoj Žižek offered new aspects of "the gaze" extensively used in contemporary film analysis. Rather, it is a research tradition—one that originated in the 1980s with the work of a handful of scholars and today boasts a scholarly society, an annually held international conference, and … He was particularly interested in the power of montage to create meaning and emotional impact. Mulvey’s essay, published two years later in Screen magazine, was written for an academic audience so it can be a little difficult to understand. Lev Kuleshov was another Soviet filmmaker and theorist. Film theory sometimes seems difficult and complicated, but fundamentally it’s a range of different tools that you can use to explain how film works. A step-by-step approach to these issues guides the reader through the central topics of film theory. Inspired designs on t-shirts, posters, stickers, home decor, and more by independent artists and designers from around the world. [6], In the 1960s and 1970s, film theory took up residence in academia importing concepts from established disciplines like psychoanalysis, gender studies, anthropology, literary theory, semiotics and linguistics—as advanced by scholars such as Christian Metz. Film Theory is an academic discipline that aims to explore cinema through it's relation to it's connection to society at large; understanding films relationship to reality, art, individual viewers and society at large. As such, it is related to Literary Theory and Semiotics. As technologies have progressed, contemporary film theory now looks at where and how we encounter cinema. There has been a refocus onto celluloid film's ability to capture an "indexical" image of a moment in time by theorists like Mary Ann Doane, Philip Rosen and Laura Mulvey who was informed by psychoanalysis. Film theory is not to be confused with general film criticism, or film history, though these three disciplines interrelate. Laura Mulvey is a contemporary British film theorist and filmmaker. Auteur directors generally have a distinctive style from film-to-film and often fill other roles besides directing including: writing, editing, and sometimes acting in their own films. This differentiates this area from many otherphilosophical disciplines. So, they analysed the mechanisms at play, which could provide meaning and impact for the viewer. Truffaut dedicated the film to his friend and mentor, André Bazin. Film theory recognizes the cinema as a distinct art form. See also individual directors, such as François Truffaut and Sergey Eisenstein; The film theory has been extensively applied to describe the mass transfer in systems in which fluid phases are present. [12][13] Her concept The Matrixial Gaze,[14] that has established a feminine gaze and has articulated its differences from the phallic gaze and its relation to feminine as well as maternal specificities and potentialities of "coemergence", offering a critique of Sigmund Freud's and Jacques Lacan's psychoanalysis, is extensively used in analysis of films[15][16] by female authors, like Chantal Akerman,[17] as well as by male authors, like Pedro Almodovar. Her work focuses on the intersection of film theory, psychoanalysis and feminism. Widely considered to be The Master of Suspense, Alfred Hitchcock had an interesting theory on how suspense is built. Feminist film theory is a theoretical film criticism derived from feminist politics and feminist theory influenced by Second Wave Feminism and brought about around the 1970s in the United States. Dziga Vertov was a Soviet theorist and an early documentarian. Mast, Gerald; and Marshall Cohen, editors. But what exactly is it? If you have a great idea you’d like to share with our readers, send it to editor@videomaker.com. Psychoanalytic film theory occurred in two distinct waves. This stagnant film is hypothetical since we really don't know the details of the velocity profile near the interface. Feminist Film Theory also questions how representation on screen and in the filmmaking process reflect the real world. [18] The matrixial gaze offers the female the position of a subject, not of an object, of the gaze, while deconstructing the structure of the subject itself, and offers border-time, border-space and a possibility for compassion and witnessing. Theory Where did the male gaze come from? Key characteristics of formalism is the theoretical and critical emphasis on form. More specifically, they studied what makes film stand apart as its own distinct art form. André Bazin was a French film critic and theorist whose work in the 1940s challenged the prevailing attitudes of the ‘20s and ‘30s. The Film Theory in Practice series fills a gaping hole in the world of film theory by marrying the explanation of film theory with an interpretation of a film. In brief, film theory is a way to think about the elements of film. Often seen as dense and abstract, film theory can be a useful tool in understanding the meaning and impact of a film. Filmmaker and theorist Laura Mulvey first coined the term “the male gaze” in her seminal 1973 paper Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. He felt that what made film unique was the ability to show objective reality using long-takes, deep focus and misé en scene. Cognitive film theory, as its advocates often point out, is not actually a unified theory of film. Film theory is a scholarly pursuit, which attempts to explain the essence of what film is. The channel, like its predecessor, was created by Matthew Patrick, better known as MatPat. She began making films in the 1910s with an interest in differentiating film as a distinct art, separate from painting or literature. Originally focused on depictions of women in cinema, Feminist Theory critiques The Male Gaze. Auteur Theory is a way of looking at films that state that the director is the “author” of a film. The French word auteur literally translates to the english, “author.” Within the context of cinema, the word auteur is used to describe a director who exerts a high level of control across all aspects of a film. Film theory is not to be confused with general film criticism, though there can be some crossover between the two disciplines.

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