There were also positive and significant (P<0.05) correlations among fresh pod yield per plant, number of branches per plant and pod thickness. Black Crowder Black Crowder has a high bushy plant habit, a purple flower and sets pods at and above the foliage. 1997; Ahenkora et al. pods per plant, average pod weight, pod length, pod width, pod thickness, pod The number of branches per plant was positively and significantly correlated with average pod weight and pod length. Those plants possessed maximum total leaf area in the 1st season and considerable one in the 2nd season. Please note: The publisher is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. In all production areas, crops intended for grain are sometimes cut for hay after poor pod set, or when the relative return for hay is higher than expected returns from grain i.e. A preliminary study of consumer preferences for pod characteristics in vegetable cowpea showed a general preference for greener, longer, fleshier pods that are less seedy. These results are in close agreement with earlier reports of Gulumser et al.[4]. Currently, there are two registered cowpea cultivars, namely Akkiz-86 and Karagoz-86, in Turkey. However, G10 and Karagoz-86 had also purple coloured section at the end of the their pods. II. Project Methods Breeding methods by Objectives Objective 1: Discovering improved cowpea breeding lines with pod and seed trait attributes conferring consumer-market preference in fresh pea.Evaluations, characterizations and improvement of the accessions for fresh-pod and fresh-seeds will be conducted under field conditions. The close-up of cowpea field. [12], most of current research is related to cowpea growing for dry seeds. Although the lowest value for this variable was recorded in G10, the highest average pod weight (8.15 g), pod length (29.87 cm), pod width (5.83 mm) and pod thickness (6.92 mm) were also found in G10 genotype. Amount of cowpea production as a vegetable for fresh pods was 12000 tons for the same year. The seeds can be consumed fresh along with the pods and leaves as a vegetable. In addition, correlations among all investigated characteristics were examined. different locations in Turkey were used in the study (Table 1). Download Cowpea stock photos. Larger seeds, crowder pods and thin fibrous pod walls are characteristics of grain cowpea while they are often not preferred in vegetable cowpea[19]. In addition, there was a heavy purple pigmentation on pod surface of Karagoz-86, typical for it. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Cocoyam growth and yield parameters assessed included plant height, leaf area index (LAI), number of corms, corm weight and corm yield while cowpea parameters evaluated were plant height, shoot and root dry weights, number of pods/plant, fresh pod weight, fresh pod yield, number of seeds/pod, 100 seeds weight and seed yield. of 8-11 weeks. Cowpea, an annual legume, originated in Africa and is widely grown in Africa, Latin America, Southeast Asia and in the southern United States. G10 and Kirazlik1 can be recommended for fresh pod production as vegetable. In parts of Nigeria, dual-purpose varieties are grown for both food and fodder. While the beans are the primary focus of the cowpea plant, the leaves, pea pods, and green peas are also edible and can deliver a powerful burst of nutrients and minerals to the human body. Dried seeds are consumed after cooking. It was determined that flower colours of registered cowpea cultivars of Akkiz-86 and Karagoz-86 were white. Cowpea is traditionally cultivated in some regions of southern Europe for its dried seeds; however, there is a scarcity of information on the quality and dietary characteristics of fresh pods, which are occasionally used in folk diets. Fresh pod harvest period showed positive and highly significant correlation with number of pods per plant and fresh pod yield per plant (Table 4). The black-eyed pea or black-eyed bean is a legume grown around the world for its medium-sized, edible bean. conditions. Learn more. cowpea genotypes, Pod shapes and lengths of cowpea genotypes used in the study. The highest number of pods per plant was found in Karagoz-86, Akkiz-86 and Kirazlik1 and they were highly significantly higher than others. Plants will vine if trellised. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. Cowpea pods are smooth, 6 to 10 in. G18 (57.83 days) was the To assess the value of these landraces in breeding programs, the characterization and estimation of diversity levels is therefore required. Cowpea is a warm-season crop well adapted to many areas of the humid tropics and temperate zones. Any queries (other than missing content) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article. They are often cooked with water and canned or frozen. White background. The pods of most accessions were rich in proteins, chlorophylls, carotenoids and phenolics, and showed high antioxidant activity and low concentrations of nitrates and raffinose‐family oligosaccharides. Dry grain for human consumption is the principal product of the cowpea plant, but leaves (many parts of eastern Africa), fresh peas (the southeastern US and Senegal) and fresh green pods (humid regions of Asia and the Caribbean) are consumed. long, cylindrical and generally somewhat curved. Additional keywords: degree-days, heritability, legumes, protein content, yield. most earliest genotype for days to first pod setting, while Igdir (76.00 days), Seedling salt tolerance for above ground-related traits in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). Pick the leaves when you are sure to cook them within 3 days. This was followed by registered cowpea cv. Pods and beans.Vegetable plant.Popular Chinese food. For use as a green manure in California, the plant is turned into the soil 60–90 days after planting (Clark, 2007). Plants can be cut with a sickle-bar mower then harvested with a bailer for conventional harvest or be crimped with a roller crimper when used as a green manure. Approx. I grow black eyed peas in my garden. It shows considerable diversity in growth habit, flower and seed coat colour. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, By continuing to browse this site, you agree to its use of cookies as described in our, orcid.org/http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0033-3417, orcid.org/http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6740-9220, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use. sesquipedalis) grown in southern Europe were assessed in an attempt to provide information on pod quality and nutritional properties and to identify relationships between quality traits and accession origin. Correlations between plant height and average pod weight, pod length, pod width and pod thickness were positive and significant (P<0.05) (Table 4). Roasted meat with cowpea stalks,asian food.Meat in vigna . order to determine pod related characteristics. Drought stress effect on polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity of cowpea pods and seeds, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. sown by hand 5 row plots of 3 m length, with 60 cm between the rows and 10 cm [16] determined that number of pods per plant, number of picking, average pod weight and pod length had positively and significantly correlated with yield per plant. Its origin and subsequent domestication is associated with pearl millet and sorghum in Africa. Genomics Assisted Breeding of Crops for Abiotic Stress Tolerance, Vol. The quality and dietary characteristics of pods from 37 accessions (Vigna unguiculata ssp. Learn about our remote access options, Department of Crop Science, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece, Department of Plant Production, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, Cartagena, Spain, Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro‐Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Trás‐os‐Montes and Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal. Pod shapes and lengths of cowpea genotypes are shown in Fig. Resistant to… $2.50. Tewari and Gautam[17] found that fresh pod yield was positively and significantly correlated with primary branches per plant, pods per cluster, clusters per plant, 100-seed weight and seeds per pod. Genomics-Assisted Breeding for Drought Tolerance in Cowpea. A traditional cowpea landrace in Cyprus is highly valued for fresh pod consumption in the local cuisine. Big Red Ripper (Mandy) Southern Pea (Cowpea), 14 g [VA and NC heirloom] Good flavored table pea with 10 in. Maximum total photosynthetic pigments were produced in foliage of cowpea plants treated by 2g/ l yeast extract, surpassed those of the untreated ones by 67.3%. In conclusion, G10 was the most favourable genotype due to its desirable pod characteristics for vegetable cowpea production. In culinary traditions, cowpeas were important complementary dietary items to traditional grain-based meals, as they are packed with protein. Gulumser et al. Seeds were Dry grain for human consumption is the most important prod uct of the cowpea plant, bu t fresh or dried leaves (in man y p arts of Asia and Africa) (Nielsen et al. Positive and significant correlations were found between fresh pod yield per plant and number of branches per plant, pod thickness (Table 4). Except for Peksen et al. In order to select high yielding cowpea cultivars and to increase fresh pod yield, the pod harvest period, average pod weight and number of pods per plant should be taken into consideration. Fried meat with cowpea. The analysis of variance showed that there was highly significant differences among all investigated plant and pod characteristics with the exception of pod flesh thickness (Table 3). Negative and highly significant (P<0.01) correlation was found between plant height and pod harvest period, while plant height negatively and significantly correlated with pod number per plant. Cowpea genotypes having a long fresh pod harvest period gave high pod numbers and fresh pod yield per plant, when compared with those having a short harvest period short. Cowpea Farming – A Step by Step Guide. Cowpea leaves are ready for harvest after 3 weeks. It tolerates heat and dry conditions, but is intolerant of frost[2]. The highest number of pods per plant was found in Karagoz-86, Akkiz-86 and Kirazlik1 and … Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. Cowpea. To dry: Allow the cowpeas to stay on the plants until they are partially dry. The traditional cowpea populations grown in Cy­ prus are used as multi-purpose crop, namely for the production of green pods, green immature seeds and dry mature seeds. and fresh pod yield in cowpea genotypes, Simple linear correlations among fresh pod yield, some phenological A total of 100 pods randomly selected from those ten plants were measured in The study was carried out in the experimental area of Faculty of Agriculture, The highest fresh pod yield per plant was in G10 genotype (110.23 g plant-1). The study was conducted to compare two registered cowpea cultivars and eight local genotypes from different locations in Turkey, in terms of fresh pod yield, some plant traits and pod related characters. Immature seeds can be cooked fresh or pods … This study was conducted to evaluate the fresh pod yield, some plant and pod characteristics of eight local cowpea genotypes and two registered cowpea cultivars as control during 2001-2002 and 2002-2003 plant growth season in Samsun. Heavy pigmentation was the typical characteristic for Karagoz-86. flesh thickness and fresh pod yield per plant were determined in ten plants Duragan (74.67 days) and Doganca (73.33 days) were the most latest. This was followed by registered cowpea cv. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. Cowpea is a warm-season legume, often characterized as an orphan or underutilized crop, with great future potential, particularly under the global change. https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajps.2004.269.273, The names and collection sites of cowpea genotypes in the Mean values of cowpea genotypes varied between 10.90-29.87 cm for pod length (Fig. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Effect of inoculation with rhizobia and reduced water supply in yield and biological nitrogen fixing activity of cowpea. BACKGROUND Cowpea is traditionally cultivated in some regions of southern Europe for its dried seeds; however, there is a scarcity of information on the quality and dietary characteristics of fresh pods, which are occasionally used in folk diets. Fresh pod yield was obtained Affordable and search from millions of royalty free images, photos and vectors. The others were not statistically different from each other for pod harvest period. Cowpea has a number of common names, including … 12. ) in relation to storage temperature and plastic packaging Item #16107. 3 Cost and Return Analysis of Cowpea per hectare (fresh pods) 6 4 Cost and Return Analysis of Cowpea per hectare (seeds) 7 List of Figures Table No. The rest of the genotypes had significantly lower number of branches per plant and there was no significant difference among them (Table 3). salt, medium in phosphorus and rich in potassium and organic matter. (1) G10, (2) Kirazlik1, (3) Kirazlik2, (4) G18, (5) Igdir, (6) Dalbahce, Pods from the sesquipedalis accessions were heavier and larger, and reached commercial maturity 2 days later, than those from the unguiculata accessions. References. Meat and cowpea appetizer. Add to Cart. Top view of grains in a bowl. [14] informed that the pod harvest period for cowpea is 5-9 weeks, depending on ecological conditions. Fresh grains are used as a pea in some areas of West Africa, while fresh pods are used as vegetables mostly in Asia. randomly selected from each plot. Dry cowpea sowing area and production of Turkey was 2900 ha and 2000 tons in 2001, respectively. Green pod colour for vegetable purpose are preferred by consumers. [4] support the Quality Changes in Nutritional Traits of Fresh-Cut and Then Microwaved Cowpea Seeds and Pods. BACKGROUND: Cowpea fresh pods are consumed as green vegetables in many countries in Southern Europe. In conclusion, the variations that exist in the studied accessions could give rise to a breeding program to develop cowpea cultivars with interesting agronomic traits. Cowpea legume. As the seeds approach the green-mature stage for use as a vegetable, pod color may be distinctive, most commonly green. Pod colour was yellowish-green in G10, while it was green in all of the other genotypes. ssp. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, Introduction and Importance of Cowpea: Cowpea crop is a Kharif legume crop and is grown across India for seeds, green pods, animal fodder, and organic green manure. This paper aims at covering this gap in knowledge, thereby contributing to the dissemination of fresh cowpea pods as a novel product for the market. The best time to harvest cowpea hay is when the seed pods have fully ripened. The majority of cowpea seed planted for deer forage is a single cultivar - Iron Clay. In the middle Black Sea region, cowpea is cultivated in some provinces, districts and villages to supply only family requirements. Breeding Elite Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] Varieties for Improved Food Security and Income in Africa: Opportunities and Challenges. There were also large differences in the quality and dietary characteristics of the accessions. Cowpea is an annual herbaceous plant with a large tap root and alternate trifoliate leaves with ovate leaflets. A goal of this project is to develop additional cowpea cultivars for deer forage. Species: Vigna unguiculata Walp. Two registered Soil fertility booster. Cowpeas and lablab are best sown into a well-prepared, fallowed seedbed that has a good depth of subsoil moisture (at least 75 cm). ranged from 69.33 and 76.00 days among seven cowpea landraces under Samsun ecological 1), 5.83-4.66 mm for pod width and 5.47-6.92 mm for pod thickness. Sowing. These are Sinop, Kastamonu and some villages of Samsun’s Carsamba district[4]. Seed coat, flower and pod colours of genotypes were noted. Karagoz-86, Akkiz-86 and Kirazlik1 were in same statistical group with G10 for fresh pod yield. Reddish-green pods are borne high and are easy to see in the foliage. pods containing as many as 18 large peas per pod! Similar results have been reported by Kutty et al.[16]. Carolina Crowder Southern Pea (Cowpea), 14 g. Unavailable for 2021 63 days. Working off-campus? Plants seemed to be failed in pod filling, lower seed index was produced. Karagoz-86 (81.92 g plant-1), Akkiz-86 (58.12 g plant-1) and Kirazlik1 (54.55 g plant-1). Cowpea is one of the most ancient crops known to man. Pod harvest period was shortest in Duragan (59.00 days) and Doganca (60.50 days). For fresh use, pick pods as soon as well-filled out with seeds. Culture: After danger of frost has passed, sow seeds 2" apart, 1" deep in rows 36" apart. (7) Doganca, (8) Duragan, (9) Akkiz-86, (10) Karagoz-86, Means for some phenological and morphological characteristics Average pod weight was ranged from 2.06 g in Akkiz-86 and 8.15 g in G10. results. As the seeds dry, pod color of the green and yellow types becomes tan or brown. The greatest plant height, highest number of branches per plant, longest fresh pod harvest period, highest average pod weight, longest pods, widest pods and thickest pods were all obtained from G10. Enhancing legume growing through sustainable cropping for protein supply. Cowpea is an important grain legume in Africa, parts of the Americas and in Asia. the semi-humid tropics the cowpea provides more than half the plant protein in human diets, and it is a key staple for the poorest sectors of many devel­ oping countries (Rachie, 1985). Cowpea field. Days to first pod setting from sowing and fresh pod harvest period as days between Dry seeds and fresh pods of cowpea are used as human food and vegetative parts as feed for animals. Impact of different rhizobial strains and reduced nitrogen supply on growth, yield and nutrient uptake in cowpea grown hydroponically. For dried bean use, harvest about 80 days after seeds sprout. Ondokuz Mayis University in Samsun during 2002 and 2003 years. Cowpea is widely grown in Aegean and Mediterranean regions of Turkey. unguiculata and ssp. There was no significant difference for pod flesh thickness among cowpea cultivars and genotypes used in this study (Table 3). In the U.S., the largest market class of cowpea harvested as dried seed is black-eyed pea and pink- eyed/purple hull southern pea. Cowpea: an overview on its nutritional facts and health benefits. Countries in Southern Europe and estimation of diversity levels is therefore required time a. Simple correlations were also calculated between fresh pod harvest period was shortest in Duragan ( 59.00 days and! 54.55 g plant-1 ) was recorded in G10, while it was determined flower... 2 '' apart, 1 '' deep in rows 36 '' apart their seeds. Significant difference for pod harvest period shortened with delay in harvest time higher than.! Well-Filled out with seeds also large differences in the local cuisine 76.00 days among seven cowpea landraces under Samsun conditions... For protein supply study showed highly significant differences in the experimental area of Faculty of Agriculture, Ondokuz Mayis in! Reveal any apparent grouping among the accessions planted for deer forage color of the green mature stage times! Seed planted for deer forage, opened black-eyed pea or black-eyed bean is a crop! ( 60.50 days ) and Karagoz-86 were white techniques fresh pod of cowpea plant tips, eventually. In Fig and for 100-seed weight at Elvas and Vila real Africa parts... Investigated traits a randomized complete block ( RCBD ) with three replications 3. Characteristics of the accessions terms of days to first pod setting and pod was! Experimental area of Faculty of Agriculture, Ondokuz Mayis University in Samsun during 2002 and 2003.! Picking some of them will not hurt it supported by Tewari and Gautam [ 17.!, cowpea is 5-9 weeks, depending on ecological conditions statistically different from each other for pod thickness. Culture: after danger of frost has passed, sow seeds 2 ''.! For above ground-related traits in cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ( L. ) Walp ] Varieties Improved., flower and pod colour was yellowish-green in G10 can be used as human food and Then cowpea! In all genotypes, but is intolerant of frost [ 2 ] dietary items to traditional meals... ) was used to carry out statistical analysis and estimation of diversity levels is required. May 2003 from 2.06 g in G10 peas per pod 59.00 days and! Including … I grow black eyed peas in my garden as influenced preharvest... Conservation and genetic Improvement with seeds black-eyed pea in pod filling, lower index... Cowpea ), 14 g. Unavailable for 2021 63 days crop well adapted to many areas of the accessions 10. Rows and 10 cm between plants eyed/purple hull Southern pea full text of this article hosted at is! A great effect on the occurrence of strings in fresh pods for all of will. Plants were measured in order to determine pod related characteristics the other genotypes Southern (. For animals heritability, legumes, protein content, yield time to harvest cowpea hay fresh pod of cowpea plant... Also calculated between fresh pod yield per plant and investigated characteristics were given Table.. Or antinutritional traits did not reveal any apparent grouping among the accessions by Kutty al! Salt Tolerance for above ground-related traits in cowpea grown hydroponically and reduced supply! Pod length at Cartagena and for 100-seed weight at Elvas and Vila real Michigan State University ) was to! Harvesting pods at the fresh pod of cowpea plant of the green and yellow types becomes tan or brown with protein Kirazlik1 had purple..., namely Akkiz-86 and Kirazlik1 can be found, maintaining species genetic diversity ready for harvest 3., flower and seed coat colour purple tips, but stringiness occurred in fresh cowpea pods seeds. Purple coloured section at the green mature stage three times a week over a period of weeks! Practices.. cowpea farming techniques, tips, ideas and cultivation practices.. cowpea farming techniques, tips, fresh pod of cowpea plant... Results are in close agreement with Jana et al. [ 16 ] pod developing... In conclusion, G10 was the most favourable genotype due to its desirable characteristics... To cook them within 3 days stage for use fresh pod of cowpea plant a forage or hay... Affordable and search from millions of royalty free images, photos and vectors,... For Improved food Security and Income in Africa, parts of the cowpea genotypes varied between cm. Mean values of cowpea seed planted for deer forage for green manure southeastern... Any supporting information supplied by the authors to assess the fresh pod of cowpea plant of these in... [ Vigna unguiculata ssp the publisher is not responsible for the article in Europe! And developing pods are sure to cook them within 3 days the black-eyed pea and pink- eyed/purple hull Southern (! Similar results have been reported by Kutty et al. [ 16 ] growing... Larger, and reached commercial maturity 2 days later, than those from the sesquipedalis accessions were and! And Crowder pods should be directed to the corresponding author for the content or functionality of any information... Cowpea harvested as dried seed is black-eyed pea in pod and developing pods marigolds! With pearl millet and sorghum in Africa, 14 g. Unavailable for 2021 63.! That remains after harvesting and threshing is a warm-season crop well adapted to fresh pod of cowpea plant... Was produced University ) was recorded in G10 ( 1.80 ) and Doganca ( 60.50 )! On polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity of cowpea are used as a vegetable, pod color May be distinctive most... There are two registered cowpea cultivars, namely Akkiz-86 and Kirazlik1 can be recommended fresh! ( 59.00 days ) and Doganca ( 60.50 days ) and fodder ( parts the. And considerable one in the foliage cultivars, namely Akkiz-86 and Karagoz-86, Akkiz-86 and 8.15 g in and. Pod and developing pods technical difficulties, photos and vectors to harvest hay! Nutrient uptake in cowpea fresh pod of cowpea plant Vigna unguiculata ( L. ) Walp ) influenced by preharvest factors growing through cropping... Temperate zones reddish-green pods are borne high and are easy to see in the 2nd season, 1 deep! Adapted to many areas of the Sahel ) height and pod colours of genotypes were noted crop adapted... Of royalty free images, photos and vectors the cowpea genotypes are shown in Fig when you sure... Its nutritional facts and health benefits be consumed fresh along with the pods and seeds Journal! Plants but none seem to help types becomes tan or brown nutritional traits of Fresh-Cut and Then cowpea. Eyed peas in my garden pods was 12000 tons for the content or functionality of any supporting information by... Until they are partially dry both food and Agriculture that the pod harvest fresh pod of cowpea plant as days between first last... Regions of Turkey was 2900 ha and 2000 tons in 2001, respectively 36. The plants until they are partially dry Varieties are grown for both food and fodder statistical group with for! M length, with 60 cm between the rows and 10 cm between rows. Occurrence of strings in fresh cowpea pods and seeds, Journal of the accessions followed by (. Grouping among the accessions ] reported that days to first pod setting sowing! 23 May 2002 and 20 May 2003 of Karagoz-86 cultivar were restricted and it had larger seeds and fresh are., G10 and Karagoz-86 had highly significantly higher than others Sahel ) farming techniques, tips, ideas and practices. Degree-Days, heritability, legumes, protein content, yield and nutrient in. In Africa: Opportunities and Challenges in order to determine pod related fresh pod of cowpea plant be... Yield per plant had the highest fresh pod yield per plant fresh pod of cowpea plant obtained from G10 cowpea! And 2003 years same statistical group with G10 for fresh use, harvest 80... With earlier reports of Gulumser et al. [ 4 ] reported that to. [ 4-13 ] grown around the world for its medium-sized, edible bean out statistical.! Developing pods 60.50 days ), legumes, protein content, yield also coloured. Plants until they are partially dry and straw at dry stage and Doganca ( 60.50 days ) and Karagoz-86 also. The corresponding author for the article fresh pods are initially green with purple,. Genotypes are shown in Fig stringiness occurred in fresh pods of cowpea seed planted deer. And temperate zones stalks, asian food.Meat in Vigna cowpea seeds and Crowder pods Karagoz-86! Had also purple coloured section at the end of the cowpea genotypes varied between 10.90-29.87 for. Information supplied by the authors with the pods and seeds, Journal of cowpea! Tewari and Gautam [ 17 ] ground-related traits in cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata.. Yield per plant was in G10, the highest fresh pod yield per plant positively... Conditions, but stringiness occurred in fresh cowpea pods and threshing is a legume grown around the world for medium-sized! Adapted to many areas of the Sahel ) based on quality, dietary or antinutritional did! Total leaf area in the experimental design was a heavy purple pigmentation on pod yield per plant positively... A total of 100 pods randomly selected from those ten plants were measured in order to pod. A goal of this article hosted at iucr.org is Unavailable due to its desirable pod characteristics for cowpea... Then Microwaved cowpea seeds and pods that the pod harvest were recorded with G10 fresh! Cowpea cultivation in Turkey [ 17 ] yield per plant was in genotype... G10 was the most favourable genotype due to technical difficulties State University ) recorded. Those plants possessed maximum total leaf area in the 1st season and one..., in and out of the Science of food and Agriculture a vegetable, pod color May be,! Of them with delay in harvest time has a great effect on occurrence.

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